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Stanislav V. Magnitskiy, Claudio C. Pasian, Mark A. Bennett, and James D. Metzger

Shoot stretching in plug production reduces quality and makes mechanized transplanting difficult. The objectives of this study were to measure seedling emergence and shoot height of plugs as affected by paclobutrazol application during seed soaking, priming, or coating on seedling emergence and height. Verbena (Verbena ×hybrida Voss. `Quartz White'), pansy (Viola wittrockiana L. `Bingo Yellow Blotch'), and celosia (Celosia cristata L. `New Look') seeds were soaked in water solutions of paclobutrazol and subsequently dried on filter paper at 20 °C for 24 h. Soaking seeds in paclobutrazol solutions before sowing reduced growth and percentage seedling emergence of verbena and pansy but had little effect on those of celosia. Verbena seeds soaked in 50, 200, or 500 mg paclobutrazol/L for 5, 45, or 180 min produced fewer and shorter seedlings than controls. Osmopriming verbena seeds with 10 to 500 mg paclobutrazol/L reduced seedling emergence. Seedling height and emergence percentage of pansy decreased with increasing paclobutrazol concentrations from 2 to 30 mg·L–1 and with soaking time from 1 to 5 min. The elongation of celosia seedlings was reduced by soaking seeds in 10, 50, 200, or 500 mg paclobutrazol/L solutions for 5, 180, or 360 min. However, these reductions were negligible and without any practical application.

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Gloria McIntosh and Gerald Klingaman

Several cut flower species were studied to determine their feasibility for cut flower production. Three fertilizer treatments (0.5, .1, and .15kg/m2 respectively) were used and their effect on number of stems, stem length and fresh weight were determined. Celosia cristata and Ageratum houstonianum `Blue Horizon' proved to respond best to fertilizer treatments. Celosia fertilized at a rate of .15kg/m2 will produce approximately 200 stems/m2. Ageratum will produce appoximately 400 stems/m2 when fertilized at a rate of .10kg/m2. Fertlizer rates of .10 and .15 kg/m2 for Eustoma culture yielded 86 stems/m2, which was lower than other species used in this test. Extended vase life and consumer response could possibly justify using this species in cut flower production. An economic break-even analysis will be presented to show what price will have to be received per stem to cover costs.

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W. Garrett Owen, Alyssa Hilligoss, and Roberto G. Lopez

Production and market value of U.S. grown specialty cut flowers has increased over the past several years due to stem quality issues related to long-distance transport, regional proximity to market centers, and consumer’s willingness to purchase locally. Cut flowers are traditionally grown in field or greenhouse environments; however, high tunnels provide an alternative production environment and a number of cultural and economic advantages. Specialty cut flower species ‘Campana Deep Blue’ bellflower (Campanula carpatica), bells of ireland (Moluccella laevis), ‘Bombay Firosa’ celosia (Celosia cristata), ‘Amazon Neon Purple’ dianthus (Dianthus barbatus), ‘Fireworks’ gomphrena (Gomphrena pulchella), ‘Vegmo Snowball Extra’ matricaria (Tanacetum parthenium), and ‘Potomac Lavender’ snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) were planted in both field and high tunnel environments during the late season (early summer) in the midwestern United States. Compared with field production, high tunnel production yielded 9.1 stems/m2 (75%) for bells of ireland and 9.5 cm (15%), 16.8 cm (16%), 6.7 cm (44%), and 6.3 cm (19%) longer stems for bells of ireland, celosia, gomphrena, and matricaria, respectively. Additionally, stem length and caliper was greatest for high tunnel–grown bells of ireland, celosia, and dianthus. Our results indicate that late-season planting and production in a high tunnel is suitable for most of the species we investigated.

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Carl E. Niedziela Jr. and Guochen Yang

Plug seedlings of Celosia cristata L. `Persimmon Chief' were planted in four production systems (harvest lugs, lay-flat bags, pots, and polystyrene trays) on 7 May 2004. Production systems were randomized in a Latin-square design with four replications of each system. Each treatment plot was 0.7 m × 1.1 m. Planting density was 31 plants/m2. The harvest lugs were 55 cm × 37 cm × 16 cm. The lay-flat bags were 114 cm × 30 cm × 3 cm. The pots were 25 cm bulb pans. The polystyrene trays were 67 cm × 34 cm × 5 cm and contained 32 square cells. All of the containers were filled with the same tobacco germination media. The plants in the harvest lugs, lay-flat bags and pots were irrigated daily with 150 mg·g-1 N from 20N–4.4P–16.6K. The plants in the polystyrene trays were floated on a solution of 150 mg·g-1 N from 20N–4.4P–16.6K. Float solutions were monitored and adjusted weekly for volume and fertilizer concentration. Individual stems were harvested at the appropriate stage of development for market. The fresh weight, stem length and flower diameter of individual stems were recorded. Stems produced in float trays had the lowest fresh weight (162.2 g). Stems grown in harvest lugs (363.5 g) weighed more than those in pots (298.4 g) but not lay-flat bags (338.4 g, lsd 0.05 = 42.7). Stems grown in float trays (88.8 g) were shorter than lay-flat bags (121.5 g), harvest lugs (120.5 g), and pots (113.5 cm, lsd 0.05 = 10.5). Flower diameter did not differ between production systems (mean diameter = 7.2 cm).

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Hiroaki Ito, Takahiro Hayashi, Masaki Hashimoto, Katsuro Miyagawa, Saori Nakamura, Youichi Mizuta, and Susumu Yazawa

) cockscomb ( Celosia cristata ), (I) bougainvillea ( Bougainvillea spectabilis ), (J) easter cactus ( Rhipsalidopsis gaertneri ), (K) portulaca ( Portulaca grandiflora ), (L) four o'clock ( Mirabilis jalapa ), (M) snapdragon ( Antirrhinum majus ), (N

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Ryan W. Dickson, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo

al. (2001) showed that seedlings of pansy ( Viola × wittrockiana Gams.), petunia ( Petunia × hybrid Vilm.-Andr.), and vinca ( Catharanthus roseus G. Don.) increased the pH whereas celosia ( Celosia cristata L.) and zinnia ( Zinnia elegans Jacq

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Lu Zhang and Xiangyang Sun

amendment of media with CF has been reported to increase the flower quality and shelf life of potted french marigold ( Tagetes patula ) and celosia ( Celosia cristata ) ( Awang and Ismail, 1997 ). BV is a reddish-brown transparent liquid produced as a by