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W. Elliott, D.J. Werner, and P.R. Fantz

A controlled cross between Buddleja davidii var. nanhoensis (Chitt.) Rehd. `Nanho Purple' and B. lindleyana Fort. ex Lindl. produced a hybrid. Pollen viability, male fertility, and the floral and vegetative characters are presented with a Latin diagnosis. Buddleja × luteolufaucia Elliott and Fantz is proposed as the name for this hybrid. Hybridity was confirmed using RAPD analysis.

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William A. Smith and Mark H. Brand

Buddleja davidii Franch., commonly called butterfly bush, is a large woody subshrub with long, colorful, fragrant floral panicles, which attract hummingbirds and butterflies. It was originally introduced to the United States from China and is a

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Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, William C. Fonteno, and Jean-Christophe Domec

either hibiscus ( Hibiscus moscheutos ‘Luna Rose’) or buddleja ( Buddleja davidii ‘Pink Delight’; 36-plug tray; C. Raker & Sons, Inc, Litchfield, MI) grown in three substrates: 6-month aged PB at 100% as a control substrate and PB amended with 25% or 50

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Jon T. Lindstrom, Gregory T. Bujarski, and Brent M. Burkett

Buddleja indica Lam. is encountered frequently as a houseplant or a conservatory specimen and is attractive ornamentally for its oak-shaped foliage. Buddleja indica, a tetraploid African species, 2n = 76, was crossed to the Asiatic tetraploid species B. davidii Franch. The F1 generation was intermediate in foliage character between the two parents. Flowers of the F1 were either white or light lavender in color and the number of flowers per inflorescence was intermediate between the parents. The F1 plants were fertile. These hybrids might be suitable for greenhouse or container culture due to their attractive foliage and floral display.

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Sandra B. Wilson, Laurie K. Mecca, Mack Thetford, and Josiah S. Raymer

Plant growth, visual quality and flowering were assessed for 14 butterfly bush (Buddleja) taxa planted in western Florida (Milton) and central southern Florida (Fort Pierce). In both locations, `Violet Eyes' butterfly bush (B. weyeriana × B. lindleyana), `Honeycomb' butterfly bush (B. × weyeriana), `Moonlight' butterfly bush (B. × weyeriana), and `Sungold' butterfly bush (B. × weyeriana) generally had the greatest growth index and shoot dry weight of all cultivars. In Fort Pierce and Milton, flower dry weights of `White Profusion' butterfly bush (B. davidii), `Nanho Alba' butterfly bush (B. davidii var. nanhoensis), and `Dartmoor' butterfly bush (B. davidii × B. davidii var. nanhoensis) were among the highest as compared to other cultivars at each site, although in Milton, `Gloster' butterfly bush (B. lindleyana), japanese butterfly bush (B. japonica) and `Honeycomb' butterfly bush also had high flower dry weights. Peak plant performance varied by month, cultivar and location. At 12 weeks, plant form and color were above average for each cultivar with the exception of `Black Knight' butterfly bush (B. davidii), lindley's butterfly bush (B. lindleyana), and `Gloster' butterfly bush in the Fort Pierce location only. After 24 weeks at each location, visual quality was above average for `Black Knight', `Dartmoor', `Gloster', `Honeycomb', `Violet Eyes', and japanese butterfly bush. Peak flowering times varied with cultivar and location. At 24 weeks, flowering of `White Profusion', `Nanho Alba', `Nanho Blue', and `Nanho Purple' butterfly bush grown in Fort Pierce was 25% to 40% less than that of the same cultivars grown in Milton. At 24 weeks, `Dartmoor' had the most flowers in both locations, covering 75% of the plant canopy.

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Sandra B. Wilson, Laurie K. Mecca, Judith A. Gersony, Mack Thetford, and Josiah S. Raymer

Because of its weedy nature, extensive use in the landscape, numerous cultivars, and history as an invasive plant in other countries, butterfly bush (Buddleja) was an appropriate candidate to evaluate for seed production and germination in Florida. Seed production was quantified for 14 butterfly bush taxa planted in western Florida (Milton) and central southern Florida (Fort Pierce). Each of the 14 taxa evaluated produced seed. In Fort Pierce, japanese butterfly bush (B. japonica) had the greatest capsule weight and `Gloster' butterfly bush (B. lindleyana) had the second greatest capsule weight as compared to other taxa. In Milton, `Gloster' had the greatest capsule weight and japanese butterfly bush and `Nanho Alba' butterfly bush (B. davidii var.nanhoensis) had the second greatest capsule weights as compared to other taxa. The shape and number of seed capsules per infructescence varied with cultivar. Seeds were cleaned and germinated in germination boxes with and without light at 20/10, 25/15, 30/20 and 35/25 °C (68.0/50.0, 77.0/59.0, 86.0/68.0 and 95.0/77.0 °F). Regardless of temperature or cultivar, light was required for germination. At each temperature, `Nanho Blue' butterfly bush (B. davidii var. nanhoensis) and `Moonlight' butterfly bush (B. × weyeriana) had highest germination rates (63-74%) as compared to other taxa.

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James A. Gagliardi and Mark H. Brand

Survey data from 114 members (42% response rate) of the Connecticut Nursery and Landscape Association were analyzed to evaluate preferences for different potential solutions to reduce the annual sale of billions of dollars of invasive ornamental plants. The majority of respondents accurately identified key invasive plant characteristics, considered themselves to be knowledgeable about invasive plants, and cited trade journals and professional organizations as their sources of invasive plant information. Although industry members generally considered norway maple (Acer platanoides), japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), and winged euonymus (Euonymus alatus) to be invasive, only 14.5% and 8.1%, respectively, considered the emerging invasive species japanese silver grass (Miscanthus sinensis) and butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) to be invasive. In comparing different approaches to reducing the sale of invasive ornamental plants, strong support was expressed for marketing noninvasive alternative plants (mean rank of 2.5) and for development of genetically altered sterile forms of invasive ornamentals (mean rank of 2.9; on a scale from 1 = most favorable to 6 = least favorable). Respondents strongly disfavored taxation as a method of reducing invasive plants sales (mean rank of 5.0) even if proceeds were directed toward invasive plant control and research. Plant bans (mean rank of 4.1) were also an unpopular choice for economically important crops, and respondents desired provisions for cultivars with reduced invasive risk to be included in plant bans. To foster maximum green industry participation in invasive plant control efforts, future directions should focus on creation of sterile forms of popular landscape plants, identification of consumer preference for noninvasive alternatives, and development of strong consumer education programs.

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Scott E. Renfro, Brent M. Burkett, Bruce L. Dunn, and Jon T. Lindstrom

addition to invasive plant lists in the United States but has been on invasive lists in other countries for a longer period of time ( Crawley, 1987 ; Oregon Department of Agriculture, 2006 ; Staples et al., 2000 ). Buddleja davidii Franch., the most

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Aaron L. Warsaw, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg, and Jeffrey A. Andresen

Irrigation scheduling based on plant daily water use (DWU) to conserve water without adversely affecting plant growth compared with a traditional irrigation rate was investigated for 25 common container-grown woody ornamentals. Ten different taxa were grown in 2006 and 2007 and five in 2008 in 10.2-L (No. 3) containers. Overhead irrigation was applied in four treatments: 1) a control irrigation rate of 19 mm (1.07 L per container) per application (control); 2) irrigation scheduled to replace 100% DWU per application (100DWU); 3) irrigation alternating every other application with 100% replacement of DWU and 75% DWU (100-75); and 4) irrigation scheduled on a three application cycle replacing 100% DWU followed by two applications of 75% DWU (100-75-75). Irrigation applications were separated by at least 24 h. Daily water use was calculated by measuring the difference in volumetric moisture content 1 h and approximately 24 h after irrigation. The three DWU treatments reduced total irrigation applied 6% to 75% compared with the control depending on treatment and species, except for Buddleja davidii ‘Guinevere’ in which total irrigation applied by the 100DWU, 100-75, and 100-75-75 treatments was 26%, 10%, and 5%, respectively, greater than the amount applied to the control. Final growth index [(plant height + width A + width B)/3] of all DWU treatments was greater than or equal to the control for all taxa. Forsythia ×intermedia ‘New Hampshire Gold’, Hydrangea arborescens ‘Dardom’, Hydrangea paniculata ‘Unique’, and Weigela florida ‘Wilma’ had higher water use efficiencies (estimated as the change in growth index per liter of water applied) at lower irrigation treatment volumes with no differences in growth index or growth index increase, indicating that further irrigation reductions may be possible without affecting growth. PourThru electrical conductivity of H. arborescens ‘Dardom’, Spiraea fritschiana ‘Wilma’, and Viburnum ×burkwoodii ‘Chenaultii’ measured in 2007 did not accumulate to damaging levels. Final plant size of all taxa under DWU treatments was the same or greater than the control and substantially less water was applied under DWU treatments except for B. davidii ‘Guinevere’.

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Dennis J. Werner and Layne K. Snelling

, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation, and uses Stipes Publishing Champaign, IL Elliott, W. Werner, D.J. Fantz, P.R. A hybrid of Buddleja davidii var. nanhoensis ‘Nanho Purple’ and B. lindleyana HortScience 2004 39 1581 1583 Royal