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Yuee Tian, Zhiping Che, Di Sun, Yuanyuan Yang, Xiaomin Lin, Shengming Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, and Jie Gao

present, more than 20 kinds of fungal diseases of peony have been reported, of which gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an increasingly severe disease with a high frequency of occurrence ( Yang et al., 2017 ). The pathogen can cause necrotic leaves

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Katherine Bennett, Jared Jent, Uttara C. Samarakoon, Guido Schnabel, and James E. Faust

Botrytis cinerea , the causal agent of botrytis blight, is a ubiquitous plant pathogen that infects more than 200 crop species worldwide. Although there are fungicides available for botrytis blight management, many chemical classes have low efficacy

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Julia M. Harshman, Wayne M. Jurick II, Kim S. Lewers, Shiow Y. Wang, and Christopher S. Walsh

being immediately discarded that contained a single infected berry that might not reflect the true storability of the cultivar or selection. Identification of Botrytis cinerea using Koch’s postulates and gene sequencing. Botrytis cinerea was isolated

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Kimberly H. Krahl and William M. Randle

Although Petunia hybrida Vilm., a major bedding plant, is susceptible to many diseases, no formal disease resistance studies have been conducted. Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. is a ubiquitous pathogen, causing great damage to greenhouse-grown ornamental crops, including petunia. In this study, a screening procedure for B. cinerea resistance in petunia was developed and 48 diverse petunia phenotypes were screened for resistance to B. cinerea in two seasons, spring and fall. The range of variability for resistance to B. cinerea in petunia was wide and continuous. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between seasons were significant and moderate. While the majority of phenotypes displayed less than a 10% difference in mean percent infection in spring vs. fall seasons, several phenotypes displayed large differences that require further testing. One cultivar, `Pink Sensation Improved', exhibited low and consistent mean percent infection in both spring and fall and, therefore, may be a useful source of resistance to B. cinerea in petunia.

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Yuee Tian, Zhiping Che, Di Sun, Jiaxuan He, Shengming Liu, and Xiaomin Lin

-growing areas in China to advance florescence for viewing, especially in parks with peonies. However, this measure also increases the incidence of peony diseases, especially gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea ( Duan, 2009 ). A disease investigation carried

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Michael S. Uchneat and Richard Craig

Botrytis cinerea is an economically important fungal pathogen of Pelargonium species. We are currently studying this plant–pathogen interaction to identify mechanisms of host resistance. Our ultimate objective is to develop commercial Pelargonium genotypes with enhanced resistance to this pathogen. Though all stages of production may be affected by this pathogen, we are investigating foliar and floral resistance of mature plants. Through simple assays, over 200 genotypes have been evaluated for foliar resistance, and more than 100 genotypes have been evaluated for floral resistance. Resistant and susceptible control genotypes have been identified for diploid and tetraploid P. ×hortorum and P. peltatum; these genotypes are being investigated to elucidate mechanisms of resistance. The diploid ivy accession 86-23-1 and the tetraploid zonal geranium `Fox' have the greatest foliar resistance among the genotypes evaluated. The diploid P. ×hortorum `Ben Franklin' has the greatest floral resistance among the evaluated genotypes. Foliar and floral resistance appear to be inherited as separate traits. Foliar resistance is manifested as a two day delay in symptom expression when compared to susceptible genotypes. Foliar resistant accession 86-23-1 has a cuticle with 150% the mass of other Pelargonium genotypes. This difference may be responsible for the observed resistance. Cuticle mass does not appear to be important in floral resistance.

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Dharmalingam S. Pitchay, Jonathan M. Frantz, James C. Locke, Charles R. Krause, and George C. J. Fernandez

disease in plants ( Mengel and Kirby, 2001 ; Talbot and Zeiger, 1996 ). These confounding findings could be a potential factor for conflicting reports of the influence of N in disease-related studies. Botrytis cinerea is a ubiquitous pathogen that

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Judith Pozo, Miguel Urrestarazu, Isidro Morales, Jessica Sánchez, Milagrosa Santos, Fernando Dianez, and Juan E. Álvaro

extent of the damage caused by the penetration of the pathogen. ( A ) Leaf discs from pepper plants subjected to the four different treatments 3 d after inoculation (DAI); 1) with silicon (Si) and Botrytis cinerea inoculum (+Si +Bot .); 2) without Si

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William S. Conway, Rowel B. Tobias, Stephane Roy, Alley E. Watada, Stephane Roy, William P. Wergin, and Carl E. Sams

Decay caused by Botrytis cinerea is significantly reduced by increasing the calcium concentration of apple fruit tissue. Electron microscope studies have revealed that cracks in the epicuticular wax may be an important pathway by which calcium penetrates into the fruit and increases the calcium concentration. In fruit inoculated with B. cinerea, the decay induced compositional changes in the cell walls of high-calcium fruit were smaller than those observed in the low calcium treatment. The effect of calcium in reducing decay is associated with maintaining cell wall structure by delaying chemical changes in cell wall composition. B. cinerea produced five polygalacturonase isozymes in vitro but only one in vivo. Among the cations studied-m was the most potent inhibitor of polygalacturonase activity in in vitro studies. Its mode of inhibition appears to involve the alteration of substrate availability for hydrolysis, rather than any direct effect on the active sites of the enzyme.

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Michael S. Uchneat, Kathryn Spicer, and Richard Craig

The objective of this study was to identify geranium cultivars that exhibit differential reactions to floral inoculation with Botrytis cinerea Per. ex. Fr. Sixty-two genotypes, including both cultivars and breeding lines, were evaluated from several Pelargonium species. Resistant genotypes included the diploid Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Herit. cultivar King of Balcon and the diploid Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bail. cultivar Ben Franklin, as well as the diploid Pelargonium peltatum accession 93-1-33 developed from an accession obtained from South Africa. Susceptible genotypes included the putative tetraploid Pelargonium peltatum cultivar Simone. Floral resistance was not correlated with foliar resistance. Diploid genotypes appeared to have greater resistance than tetraploid genotypes, and P. peltatum cultivars more resistance than P. ×hortorum cultivars. In addition, the association of petal number and resistance was investigated.