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Bridget M. Lamp, Joseph H. Connell, Roger A. Duncan, Mario Viveros, and Vito S. Polito

Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb (syn. Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Amygdalus communis L.)] flower bud development for three cultivars (Nonpareil, Carmel, and Butte) from four California locations (which span the range of almond production in California) for 2 years, and for `Nonpareil' in a single location for a third year. The objectives were to document timing of floral developmental events and to better understand the extent of variation that exists within and among cultivars, locations, and years. Results indicated that the time of floral initiation relative to hull split varied among cultivars. Median time for floral initiation in `Nonpareil' was more than 3 weeks after the onset of hull split. For `Butte' and `Carmel', median time of floral initiation preceded the onset of hull split. Extensive variation in the timing of bud development events within a cultivar was apparent. Timing of developmental events varied among locations, but no patterns emerged consistent with the north to south range which spanned 4°15' latitude and 520 km. Among years, development occurred earliest in 1997, a relatively warm year, and was delayed in 1998 and 1999, relatively cool years. Results indicate an earlier onset of floral initiation than reported in the classical literature on the subject.

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A. Godini, L. de Palma, and M. Palasciano

A study to ascertain the highest possible fruit set following self-pollination of eight self-compatible cultivars of almond (Amygdalus communis L. = Prunus dulcis Mill) was carried out in Apulia (southern Italy). Fruits set from daily hand-selling were high, compared to those from unassisted self-pollination. The results support growing most of the self-compatible Apulian almonds in solid blocks, without need for cross-pollination, provided that self-pollination is optimized by insect vectors. The relative capability of the cultivars to set fruits by unassisted self-pollination was independent of the reciprocal stigma/anthers position within the same flower.

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Jalil Dejampour, Islam Majidi, Solmaz Khosravi, Sevil Farhadi, and Atena Shadmehr

period Agronomy Research 3 3 8 Gurel, S. Gulsen, Y. 1998 Effects of IBA and BAP on in vitro shoot production of almond ( Amygdalus communis L.) Tr. J. Botany 22 375 379 Isıkalan, C. Adıyaman Akbas, F. Namlı, S. Tilkat, E. Basaran, D. 2008 In vitro

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David E. Zaurov, Sasha W. Eisenman, Timothy Ford, Sergei Khokhlov, Sovetbek Kenjebaev, Kaiyrkul T. Shalpykov, and C. Reed Funk

Taxonomy. The cultivated almond [ Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb.; syn. Amygdalus communis L., Amygdalus dulcis Mill.; Prunus amygdalus Batsch.] has a long and complex history, both taxonomically and geographically. The species belongs to