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J.A. Doty, W.S. Braunworth Jr., S. Tan, P.B. Lombard, and R.D. William

Evapotranspiration (ET) of three perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars and one cultivar each of colonial bentgrass (Agrostis tenuis L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) was measured in the field. Soil water depletion was measured with a neutron probe. Under minimal maintenance (i.e., no irrigation and infrequent mowing), ET was not significantly different for five perennial grasses. All grasses used more water than the bare-ground treatment. Soil water uptake was greatest in the upper soil layer (O to 25 cm) and decreased with depth. Few differences in water uptake were noted among grasses within each soil layer.

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Glenn A. Hardebeck, Ronald F. Turco, Richard Latin, and Zachary J. Reicher

Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain Tx-1 is suggested as a biological control for Sclerotinia homoeocarpa (F.T. Bennett) and brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) on golf courses. To overcome application difficulties, a field bioreactor is used to grow Tx-1 daily and then inject into nightly irrigation on the golf course. Though Tx-1 shows some promise for disease control in vitro, it is relatively untested under field conditions. We conducted three field experiments to 1) evaluate the efficacy Tx-1 when applied through an irrigation system for the control of dollar spot and brown patch; 2) determine if there is an interaction between nitrogen fertility or fungicides on efficacy of Tx-1; and 3) determine if Tx-1 can extend the duration of dollar spot control by a single application of fungicide. Nightly applications of Tx-1 through irrigation did not affect brown patch on `Astoria' colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris Sibth.) during the 2 years of our study. Tx-1 reduced dollar spot in `Crenshaw' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) by 37% in 1998 compared to non-Tx-1 treatments, but Tx-1 had no effect on dollar spot in 1999. Under low disease pressure, Tx-1 increased the dollar spot control of fungicides by 32% and increased the duration of control by 2.6 days. However, Tx-1 had no effect on fungicide efficacy or duration of control later in the summer when dollar spot pressure was high. Fungicides did not negatively affect Tx-1's control of brown patch or dollar spot, nor did fertilizer regime affect brown patch or dollar spot control by Tx-1. Although delivery of Tx-1 in our studies was optimized, disease control was marginal and occurred only under low disease pressure. Therefore, we conclude Tx-1 has limited practical value for turfgrass disease control on golf courses.

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Kari L. Hugie and Eric Watkins

In Minnesota, most lawns and higher cut turfgrass areas consist primarily of species such as kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) that require significant management inputs such as frequent mowing and nitrogen fertility. Several studies have shown that other species have the potential to be used more widely on home lawns in Minnesota; however, little is known about the management requirements of these species. In this study, we evaluated the performance of several alternative grass species under varying mowing and nitrogen fertility regimes at two sites in Minnesota in 2010 and 2011. Hard fescue [Festuca trachyphylla (Hackel) Krajina] showed the most consistent performance across management regimes, seasons, and locations. Colonial bentgrass (Agrostis tenuis Sibth.) showed good spring and fall turf quality, but suffered from excess thatch development and disease incidence. ‘Barkoel’ prairie junegrass [Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult] maintained acceptable turf cover throughout the trial, whereas unimproved native prairie junegrass populations did poorly regardless of management level. Tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv.] did not perform consistently in the trial due to summer stress. Our results show that hard fescue, colonial bentgrass, and ‘Barkoel’ prairie junegrass performed well regardless of mowing height or fertility treatment and could be used to a greater degree as low-input turfgrasses in Minnesota.

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L.B. McCarty and A.E. Dudeck

Duplicate studies were conducted to determine salt tolerance during germination of eight bentgrass (Agrostis spp.) cultivars commonly used for overseeding warm-season turf species, such as bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) putting surfaces. Bentgrass seeds were germinated on agar salinized with 0, 4000, 8000, 12,000, or 16,000 mg·liter-1, with the highest rate approaching one-half seawater salinity. Total germination decreased linearly or quadratically for specific cultivars as salinity increased. Time necessary to reach 50% germination across all salt concentrations was shortest for `Highland' colonial (Agrostis tenuis Sibth) and `Seaside' creeping (A. palustris Huds.) bentgrass (≈3.7 days); intermediate for `Kingstown' velvet (A. canina L.) and `Streaker' red top (A. alba L.) bentgrass (≈4.5 days); and longest for `Penneagle' creeping, `Penncross' creeping, `Exeter' colonial, and `Pennlinks' creeping bentgrass (≈5.3 days). Salt concentrations necessary to reduce germination to 90%, 75%, and 50% indicated that `Streaker' red top and `Seaside' creeping bentgrass were the most salt-tolerant cultivars. `Kingstown' velvet, `Exeter' colonial, and `Highland' colonial bentgrass were intermediate, while `Pennlinks', `Penncross', and `Penneagle' creeping bentgrass were the most salt-sensitive cultivars.

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Michel R. Wiman, Elizabeth M. Kirby, David M. Granatstein, and Thomas P. Sullivan

Living mulch cover crops can improve soil health and build organic matter, yet their use in fruit orchards comes with a risk of encouraging meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus), a rodent that can be destructive to fruit trees. Several living mulch cover crop species were assessed in an apple (Malus ×domestica) orchard understory along with wood chip mulch and bare ground. Desired species characteristics were weed competitiveness, low growth habit, nitrogen fixation, and potential rodent repellency. Legume species included birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), medic (Medicago spp.), and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum), which were planted in solid stands as well as mixtures. Nonlegume species included sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum), sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), and colonial bentgrass (Agrostis tenuis). Meadow vole presence was evaluated in fall and spring with point-intersect and run-length measurements. A legume mix (medic, birdsfoot trefoil, subterranean clover, and colonial bentgrass) had the highest meadow vole presence, with no reduction under the “sandwich” system of tilling either side of the tree trunks while leaving a cover crop in a narrow strip with the trunks. The nonlegume mix [colonial bentgrass, sweet alyssum, creeping thyme, and fivespot (Neomophila maculata)] had similar results. However, the sweet woodruff (planted in the “sandwich” system) had significantly lower presence of meadow voles than the other living mulches. Wood chip mulch, cultivation, and bare ground control were all similar, with very low presence, indicating low risk of meadow vole damage. The results from the sweet woodruff suggest that we need more research on the potential to select living mulches that are nonattractive or repellent to meadow voles for use in orchards.

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Jinmin Fu, Jack Fry, and Bingru Huang

occurred because g S is usually reduced in the early stages of a water deficit, which would consequently reduce P n . DaCosta and Huang (2005) reported that P n of colonial bentgrass ( Agrostis tenuis Sibth.) and velvet bentgrass ( Agrostis canina

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Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave, Marco Schiavon, and Bernd Maier

vitro germination HortScience 45 1747 1750 Wu, L. 1981 The potential for evaluation of salinity tolerance in Agrostis stolonifera L. and Agrostis tenuis Sibth New Phytol. 89 471 486 Zhang, Q. Wang, S. Rue, K. 2011 Salinity tolerance of 12 turfgrasses

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Dan TerAvest, Jeffrey L. Smith, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, Lori Hoagland, David Granatstein, and John P. Reganold

( Medicago lupulina ), burr medic ( Medicago polymorpha ), birdsfoot trefoil ( Lotus corniculatus ), and Colonial bentgrass ( Agrostis tenuis ). The drive alley and legume cover crop were mowed as needed, with clippings left on the ground. In Spring 2005

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Daniel Hargey, Benjamin Wherley, Andrew Malis, James Thomas, and Ambika Chandra

Agrostis palustris Huds.,‘Seaside’ and Agrostis tenuis Sibth.,’Highland’ on population, yield, rooting, and cover Agron. J. 54 407 412 Marcum, K.B. Engelke, M. Morton, S.J. White, R.H. 1995 Rooting characteristics and associated drought resistance of

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Eric M. Lyons, Peter J. Landschoot, and David R. Huff

Huds., ‘Seaside’ and Agrostis tenuis Sibth., ‘Highland’ on population yield, rooting, and cover Agron. J. 54 407 412 Ralston, D.S. Daniel, W.H. 1972 Effect of temperature and water table depth on the growth of creeping bentgrass roots Agron. J. 64 709