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Larry A. Rupp, William A. Varga, and Roger Kjelgren

Bigtoothmaple(Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) is of interest for its fall color and potential use in water-conserving landscapes. Clonal propagation of desirable selections would be beneficial. Since bigtooth maple commonly self-propagates by layering, we explored mound layering as a means of vegetative propagation. A stool bed was established in 1999 with seedlings grown from northern Utah seed. Beginning in 2001, seedlings were dormant pruned to their base and shoots allowed to grow until early July, when treatments were applied. At the time of treatment application for the reported experiments, shoot bases were girdled with 24-gauge copper wire, covered with conifer wood shavings, and kept moist during the growing season. The effects of rooting hormones and enclosure of the rooting environment on rooting were examined. On 7 July 2002, 32 trees were randomly selected and the four tallest shoots within each tree were treated with either 0, 1:5, 1:10, or 1:20 (v/v) solutions of Dip-N-Gro© rooting hormone (1% IBA, 0.5% NAA, boron). There was no significant difference in rooted shoots between treatments and 81% of the trees had at least one rooted shoot. On 9 July 2004, 39 trees were selected and two shoots per tree were girdled. One-half of the stool bed area was treated by underlaying the shavings with BioBarrier© (17.5% trifluralin a.i.). Measurements on 12 Nov. 2004 showed no apparent treatment effect on rooting and 90% of the trees had at least one rooted shoot. This research demonstrates that mound layering is an effective means of rooting shoots of juvenile bigtooth maples. Further research will examine the effectiveness of the technique in propagating mature clones.

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Emad Bsoul, Rolston St. Hilaire, and Dawn M. VanLeeuwen

Ecological traits such as an extensive range of natural distribution and tolerance to varying soil conditions, suggest that bigtooth maples (Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) could be popular landscape trees. But information on the tolerance of bigtooth maples to environmental stresses, such as drought, is virtually nonexistent. We studied physiological, growth and developmental traits of bigtooth maple plants from 15 trees native to Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah. Plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse and maintained as well-irrigated controls or exposed to drought and irrigated in cycles based on evapotranspiration. The ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was not different between drought-stressed and control plants, but the low Fv/Fm in plants designated as LM2 from the Lost Maples State Natural Area in Vanderpool, Tex., suggests these plants were relatively inefficient in capturing energy at PSII. Plants from another tree (LM5) originating from Lost Maples State Natural Area maintained similar predawn water potentials between drought-stressed and control plants after five cycles of drought. Plants from Dripping Springs State Park in Las Cruces, N.M., and those from LM2 had a strong, significant linear relationship between transpiration and stomatal conductance. Drought-stressed plants from Dripping Springs State Park, two plant sources from the Guadalupe Mountains in Salt Flat, Tex., designated as GM3 and GM4, and plants from trees designated as LM1 and LM2, had high relative growth rates and net assimilation rates. Drought-stressed plants from three of the four Guadalupe Mountain sources (GM1, GM3, GM4) had among the longest and thickest stems. Drought reduced shoot and root dry weight (DW). Although bigtooth maples showed several provenance differences in drought adaptation mechanisms, the lack of an irrigation effect on biomass allocation parameters such as root to shoot DW ratio and leaf area ratio implies that altered biomass allocation patterns may not be a common drought adaptation mechanism in bigtooth maples. Plants from selected provenances from the Guadalupe Mountains and Lost Maples State Natural Area in Texas, and to a lesser extent, provenances from Dripping Springs State Park in New Mexico might hold promise for selecting bigtooth maples for arid environments.

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Melody Reed Richards, Larry A. Rupp, Roger Kjelgren, and V. Philip Rasmussen

enough to reduce the potential of bigtooth maples as a landscape tree ( Mee et al., 2003) . Bigtooth maple is uncommon in the nursery trade and in urban landscapes. Rocky Mountain Glow ® ( Acer grandidentatum ‘Schmidt’) is the only cultivar readily

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Melody Reed Richards and Larry A. Rupp

3 42 46 Barker, P.A. 1974 The spectacular canyon maple Utah Sci. 35 1 7 10 Bowen-O’Connor, C. Hubstenberger, J. Killough, C. VanLeeuwen, D.M. St. Hilaire, R. 2007 In vitro propagation of Acer grandidentatum Nutt In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 43 40

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Emad Bsoul, Rolston St. Hilaire, and Dawn M. VanLeeuwen

regions of North America ( Bsoul et al., 2006 ; St. Hilaire, 2002 ), bigtooth maple ( Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) is a candidate taxon for selecting drought-tolerant ecotypes. Plant water relations ( Hsiao, 1973 ), stable carbon isotope discrimination

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Nisa Leksungnoen, Roger K. Kjelgren, Richard C. Beeson Jr., Paul G. Johnson, Grant E. Cardon, and Austin Hawks

; Wright et al., 2002 ) to conserve nutrients as well as other traits such as smaller leaves to reduce leaf heating ( Wright et al., 2002 ). Here we compare salt tolerance of two closely related maple species, canyon ( Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) and

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Clare Bowen-O'Connor, John Hubstenberger, Dawn Van Leeuwen, and Rolston St. Hilaire

Double-node microshoots of bigtooth maple (Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) were rooted in vitro on Driver-Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) tissue culture media containing indole acetic acid (IAA). Microshoots represented six sources from three locations within Texas and New Mexico. Microshoots were placed in Phytatrays II™ containing DKW media with no plant growth regulator (DKW0) to reduce the high cytokinin levels used for shoot proliferation. Microshoots were induced to form roots for 15 days by placing them on DKW media containing IAA at 0.01, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 or 20 μmol. Rooting frequency, the number of leaves and callus area were recorded every 30 days for 60 days. Rooting frequency increased up to 29% as IAA concentration increased (P= 0.004). However, as much as 71% of shoots for one of the three Guadalupe Mountain, Texas, sources rooted without auxin treatment after 30 days. The IAA concentration also affected the number of leaves per shoot (P= 0.0228) which averaged seven and callus area (P= <0.0001) which averaged 52 mm2. Average leaf size was 307 mm2. We conclude that IAA induces rooting in microshoots of bigtooth maple after 15 days of root induction. However, one source rooted without auxin treatment. The presence of callus does not interfere with root formation.

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R. Kjelgren and L.A. Rupp

We investigated how shelters and competing herbaceous vegetation affected tree growth and water relations during establishment. A bunch-type forage grass was concurrently seeded around 1-year-old bigtooth maple (Acer grandidentatum) and gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) planted in a silt loam field soil. During the second year following planting, irrigation was withheld, and midday water potential was measured twice to determine differences in water stress. At the end of the season, we measured total survival, elongative growth, and leaf area, as well as root growth of trees without competition. In the presence of competing vegetation, trees in shelters were less water stressed by –1.0 MPa than those without shelters. All maples without shelters and with competition died, and oak survival was 28%. Survival of both species in shelters was 86%. All trees without competing vegetation survived, but shelters affected maples differently than oaks. Maples without shelters had multiple stems that resulted in less shoot elongation and coarse roots but higher leaf area than those in shelters, and there were no differences in midday water potential. By contrast leaf area, elongation, and root growth of oaks in shelters were not different from those without shelters, but water potential was less negative. Tree shelters mitigated the effects of competition during establishment, but overall growth in shelters varied with species as oaks did not grow as well as maples.

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Clare A. Bowen-O'Connor*, Rolston St. Hilaire, John Hubsten-berger, and Dawn VanLeeuwen

Bigtooth maple (Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) is indigenous to the southwestern United States. This species is not widely used in managed landscapes but the plant holds promise as a useful ornamental tree. Micropropagation might provide additional sources of selected genotypes for the nursery industry, but tissue culture has not been used successfully to propagate this species. We cultured double-node explants from greenhouse-grown, 2-year old seedlings of bigtooth maples that originated from Utah, Texas and New Mexico. Seedling height ranged from 15-90 cm. The shoot region was divided into three equal zones designated as terminal, intermediate and basal. Explants were selected from each of those zones. Explants were established on Murashige-Skoog (MS), Linsmaier-Skoog (LS), Woody Plant Medium (WPM) and Driver-Kuniyuki (DKW) tissue culture media. Shoot proliferation, area of the plate covered by callus and foliar pigment development (hue as determined by Royal Horticultural Society Color charts) were monitored for 17 weeks. Media affected shoot proliferation (P = 0.0042) but the zone of origin (P = 0.6664) of the explant did not. Callus area showed no significant difference among the four media and three zones (P = 0.2091) and averaged 3.60 centimeters2. After four subcultures, each lasting 30 days, explants on DKW media produced 10 shoots per explant. This media might hold promise for the micropropagation of bigtooth maple. Twenty-nine percent of all explants expressed foliar pigmentation, which ranged from red-purple to orange-red. Whether foliar pigment development in tissue culture correlates with expressed pigmentation in nature warrants further investigation.

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Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, Rolston St. Hilaire, and Emad Y. Bsoul

Statistical analysis of data from repeated measures experiments with missing factor combinations encounters multiple complications. Data from asynchronous cyclic drought experiments incorporate unequal numbers of drought cycles for different sources and provide an example of data both with repeated measures and missing factor combinations. Repeated measures data are problematic because typical analyses with PROC GLM do not allow the researcher to compare candidate covariance structures. In contrast, PROC MIXED allows comparison of covariance structures and several options for modeling serial correlation and variance heterogeneity. When there are missing factor combinations, the cross-classified model traditionally used for synchronized trials is inappropriate. For asynchronous data, some least squares means estimates for treatment and source main effects, and treatment by source interaction effects are inestimable. The objectives of this paper were to use an asynchronous drought cycle data set to 1) model an appropriate covariance structure using mixed models, and 2) compare the cross-classified fixed effects model to drought cycle nested within source models. We used a data set of midday water potential measurements taken during a cyclic drought study of 15 half-siblings of bigtooth maples (Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) indigenous to Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah. Data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED software. Information criteria lead to the selection of a model incorporating separate compound symmetric covariance structures for the two irrigation treatment groups. When using nested models in the fixed portion of the model, there are no missing factors because drought cycle is not treated as a crossed experimental factor. Nested models provided meaningful F tests and estimated all the least squares means, but the cross-classified model did not. Furthermore, the nested models adequately compared the treatment effect of sources subjected to asynchronous drought events. We conclude that researchers wishing to analyze data from asynchronous drought trials must consider using mixed models with nested fixed effects.