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Kathryn M. Kleitz, Marisa M. Wall, Constance L. Falk, Charles A. Martin, Marta D. Remmenga, and Steven J. Guldan

intensive and yields are low ( Falk et al., 2000 ). If yields could be increased, perhaps through fall planting in southern New Mexico, higher plant densities, or enhanced fertility, then profitability could be increased. The strong germination potential of

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Ramesh R. Sagili, Carolyn R. Breece, Rhonda Simmons, and John H. Borden

( Rao and Stephen, 2009 ), but there is a dearth of studies on managing pollinators as a potential method of improving yield. Several tactics have been employed over the years to enhance pollination efficiency of bees, predominantly in crops that are not

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

objective of this study was to characterize variation among 54 accessions from the USDA-ARS collection for potential seed yield and nutritional quality when grown in the eastern United States. Materials and methods For this study, 54 accessions from mothbean

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L. Chercuitte, J.A. SulIivan, Y.D. Desjardins, and R. Bedard

The waiting-bed (WB) system has the potential to significantly increase the length of the strawberry (Fragaria Xananassa Duch.) production season. In the WB phase of this system the plants were deblossomed and runners were removed to stimulate the production of a multiple crowned plant. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of planting date and cultivar on yield potential and vegetative growth of the strawberry plants in the WB and cropping beds (CB). Experiments were conducted in Ontario and Quebec. Early establishment of the WB favored the production of large multicrown plants. `Kent' appeared to be the best cultivar among five tested due to the many berries produced because of good fruit set. Yield potential was not realized in late-planted CB. The highest yields per plant (273 g) were obtained in Quebec with plants from the earliest WB. Yields in CB decreased with later plantings due to stress of transplanting when air and soil temperatures were high. Berry count was identified as the yield component most affected by the later planting date of the CB. The WB system has potential for season extension in strawberry, but WB must be established early in the season to encourage the development of a plant with high yield potential.

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Salvatore Campisi-Pinto, Yusheng Zheng, Philippe E. Rolshausen, David E. Crowley, Ben Faber, Gary Bender, Mary Bianchi, Toan Khuong, and Carol J. Lovatt

assure adequate nutrient supply for next year’s crop ( Embleton and Jones, 1972 ; Embleton et al., 1959 ). Thus, careful management is required to prevent under-fertilization of high yield trees following a low crop year, which could reduce potential

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Khalid F. Almutairi, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine C. Strik

tests were used to determine whether there were any significant differences between the treatments irrigated at 100% and 150% ET c . Each measurement, including stem water potential, pruning weight, fruit bud set, yield, berry weight and diameter

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Ricardo Goenaga, Adolfo Quiles, and A. Graves Gillaspie

. Tolerance is defined in this study as the ability of a genotype to produce a good crop even when it is infected with a pathogen ( Agrios, 2005 ). The present study was conducted with the objective of determining yield potential and seed protein of various

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C.C. Shock, E.B.G. Feibert, and L.D. Saunders

Onion (Allium cepa L., `Great Scott') was grown on silt loam soils and submitted to four irrigation thresholds (-25, -50, -75, and -100 kPa) in 1992 and six irrigation thresholds (-12.5, -25, -37.5, -50, -75, and -100 kPa) in 1993 and 1994. Irrigation thresholds (soil water potential measured at 0.2-m depth) were used as criteria to initiate furrow irrigations. Onions were evaluated for yield and grade after 70 days of storage. In 1992 and 1994, total yield, marketable yield, and profit increased with increasing irrigation threshold. In 1993, total yield increased with increasing irrigation threshold, but marketable yield and profit were maximized by a calculated threshold of -27 kPa due to a substantial increase of decomposition during storage with increasing threshold.

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Carlos Miranda Jiménez and J. Bernardo Royo Díaz

Spring frosts are usual in many of Spain's fruit-growing areas, so it is common to insure crops against frost damage. After a frost, crop loss must be evaluated, by comparing what crop is left with the amount that would have been obtained under normal conditions. Potential crop must be evaluated quickly through the use of measurements obtainable at the beginning of the tree's growth cycle. During the years 1998 and 1999 and in 62 commercial plots of `Golden Delicious' and `Royal Gala' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.), the following measurements were obtained: trunk cross-sectional area (TCA, cm2), space allocated per tree (ST, m2) trunk cross-sectional area per hectare (TCA/ha), flower density (FD, number of flower buds/cm2 TCA), flower density per land area (FA, number of flower buds/m2 land area), cluster set (CS, number of fruit clusters/number of flower clusters, percent), crop density (CD, number of fruit/cm2 TCA), fruit clusters per trunk cross-sectional area (FCT, number of fruit clusters/cm2 TCA), fruit clusters per land area (FCA, number of fruit clusters/m2 land area), fruit number per cluster (FNC), average fruit weight (FW, g), average yield per fruit cluster (CY, g), yield efficiency (YE, fruit g·cm-2 TCA), and tree yield (Y, fruit kg/tree). FCT and average CY were related to the rest of the variables through the use of multiple regression models. The models which provided the best fit were FCT = FD - TCA/ha - FD and CY= -FCA - FCT. These models were significant, consistent, and appropriate for both years. Predicted yield per land area was obtained by multiplying TCA/ha × FCT × CY. The models' predictive ability was evaluated for 64 different plots in 2001 and 2002. Statistical analysis showed the models to be valid for the forecast of potential yields in apple, so that they represent a useful tool for early crop prediction and evaluation of losses due to late frosts.

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Carlos Miranda Jiménez and J. Bernardo Royo Díaz

Spring frosts are usual in many of Spain's fruit-growing areas, so it is common to insure crops against frost damage. After a frost, crop loss must be evaluated, by comparing what crop is left with the amount that would have been obtained under normal conditions. Potential crop must be evaluated quickly through the use of measurements obtainable at the beginning of the tree's growth cycle. During 1996 and 1997 and in 95 commercial plots of `Blanquilla' and `Conference' pear (Pyrus communis L.), the following measurements were obtained: trunk cross-sectional area (TCA, cm2), space allocated per tree (ST, m2), trunk cross-sectional area per hectare (TCA/ha), flower density (FD, number of flower buds/cm2 TCA), flower density per land area (FA, number of flower buds/m2 land area), cluster set (CS, number of fruit clusters/number of flower clusters, %), crop density (CD, number of fruit/cm2 TCA), fruit clusters per trunk cross-sectional area (FCT, number of fruit clusters/cm2 TCA), fruit clusters per land area (FCA, number of fruit clusters/m2 land area), fruit number per cluster (FNC), average fruit weight (FW, g), average yield per fruit cluster (CY, g), yield efficiency (YE, fruit g·cm-2 TCA), and tree yield (Y, fruit kg/tree). CS and average CY were related to the rest of the variables through the use of multiple regression models. The models that provided the best fit were CS = TCA/ha - FA and CY = -FA - FCT. These models were significant, consistent, and appropriate for both years. Predicted yield per land area was obtained by multiplying FA × CS × CY. The models' predictive ability was evaluated for 46 different plots in 2001 and 2002. Statistical analysis showed the models to be valid for the forecast of orchards' potential yield efficiency, so that they represent a useful tool for early crop prediction and evaluation of losses due to late frosts.