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Proper irrigation management is critical to growing quality turfgrass with limited water in arid and semiarid regions. Deficit irrigation, defined as applying water in amounts less than the reference evapotranspiration rate, is an irrigation

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Although water conservation programs in the arid southwestern United States have prompted prudent landscaping practices such as planting low water use trees, there is little data on the actual water use of most species. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual water use of two common landscape tree species in Tucson, Ariz., and water use coefficients for two tree species based on the crop coefficient concept. Water use of oak (Quercus virginiana `Heritage') and mesquite (Prosopis alba `Colorado') trees in containers was measured from July to October 1991 using a precision balance. Water-use coefficients for each tree species were calculated as the ratio of measured water use per total leaf area or per projected canopy area to reference evapotranspiration obtained from a modified FAO Penman equation. After accounting for tree growth, water-use coefficients on a total leaf area basis were 0.5 and 1.0 for oak and mesquite, respectively, and on a projected canopy area basis were 1.4 and 1.6 for oaks and mesquites, respectively. These coefficients indicate that mesquites (normally considered xeric trees) use more water than oaks (normally considered mesic trees) under nonlimiting conditions.

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Under natural conditions, citrus ( Citrus sp.) trees are induced to flower by seasonal exposure to either cool ambient temperatures (5 to 20 °C) or water deficit ( Cassin et al., 1969 ; Moss, 1969 ). In subtropical regions where citrus are grown

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concentration by up to 95% ( Fig. 1 ) and 78% ( Table 2 ), respectively, suggesting that ABA-induced stomatal closure allowed rapid and dramatic water conservation at the expense of CO 2 supply to photosynthesis. In addition to stomatal closure, ABA is involved

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.2135/cropsci1997.0011183X003700030034x Snow, J.T. 2001 Water conservation on golf courses. 4 June 2013. < http://www.usga.org/course_care/articles/environment/water/Water-Conservation-on-Golf-Courses > Steinke, K. Chalmers, D.R. Thomas, J.C. White, R.H. 2009

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-performing turfgrasses ( Ebdon and Kopp, 2004 ). The improvement in WUE with elevated CO 2 has a great potential for water conservation and reducing irrigation in turfgrass management. Stomata remained open in well watered and excessive CO 2 conditions ( Fig. 5A ) but

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conservation and can be economical in areas with limited water resources ( Norris and Thomas, 1982 ). Therefore, the objective of our study was to examine growth and physiological factors in association with drought tolerance and recuperative capacity of a warm

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accumulation of heat shock proteins. The expression of heat shock proteins is regulated by heat shock transcription factor (HSF) ( Nover et al., 2001 ; Sangster and Queitsch, 2005 ). The conservation of heat shock transcription factors is the main regulatory

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.1365-3040.1998.00309.x Hatfield, J.L. Quinsenberry, J.E. Dilbeck, R.E. 1987 Use of canopy temperature to identify water conservation in cotton germplasm Crop Sci. 27 269 273 10.2135/cropsci1987.0011183X002700020030x Heath, R.L. Packer, L. 1968

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Water lilies are important flowers that are widely cultivated in gardens for both ornaments and water purification ( Huang et al., 2009 ). The genus Nymphaea could be classified into six subgenera, i.e., Anecphya , Brachyceras , Confluentes

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