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.S. nursery and greenhouse growers were using conservation measures in applying irrigation. Some of the conservation techniques available to nursery and greenhouse growers include precise application of water through appropriate irrigation timing

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conservation may be related to their perceptions about the importance of plants and landscapes. Attitudes about water conservation, plants, and the importance of landscaping can potentially influence the investment of water resources in existing and future

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38 Colloquium 1 (Abstr. 700–705) Water Management and Water Relations of Horticultural Crops

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Water conservation is making journal headlines nationwide because of drought, contamination, pollution, and over development. While the idea of xeriscaping began in the Western United States where landscapes can be truly dry, many water-saving principles apply to the Southeast, where home moisture problems and pest problems associated with moisture are a major problem. A year of drought maybe followed by three years of plentiful rainfall, and conditions are significantly different from the semi-arid regions of the country to which most of the present literature on water conservation is directed.

The purpose of this project was to provide information on water conservation to designers, landscape industry personnel, and homeowners in the Southeast. This was done by compiling recommendations based on research being conducted by professionals in building science, forestry, horticulture, entomology and landscape architecture.

An educational tool addressing the pressing national problem of water conservation with a regional emphasis, this project was designed to help readers increase landscape water efficiency by 30 to 50% while lowering maintenance costs and insuring greater survivability of landscape plants in times of water shortage. Through careful planning and design, economically attractive and aesthetically sound water conserving landscapes can be created.

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The San Pedro River has been impacted by continued growth of Fort Huachuca Military Base. The San Pedro River, a riparian-migratory area, has had continuous water flow but now has intermittent water flow. The cause is cones of depression in the aquifer due to domestic well pumping. The aquifer is recharge with water from the river. Cooperative Extension has implemented Resource Conservation Audits for landowners in the lower San Pedro Valley. Also, outdoor classrooms are being constructed at three schools to educate children and community members. The goal of these programs is to educate landowners on water conservation through the use of native and adapted drought-tolerant plants, xeriscaping, irrigation efficiency, water harvesting, soil erosion, and composting. Site visits help landowners identify opportunities to reduce water use. Research-based informational brochures have been produced so landowners can plan and implement water-saving techniques on their properties. This program has been implemented using six members of the Border Volunteer Corp., part of Americorp program.

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application. The objectives were to: 1) determine the effect of scheduling irrigation according to DWU on water conservation and plant growth; 2) determine DWU and water use efficiency (WUE) of several types of common container-grown woody ornamentals and

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Depletion and contamination of traditional water supplies and population pressures are straining the water resources of the United States. This has placed increased emphasis on the need for water conservation through all phases of the use cycle. Objectives of this research were to: 1) Determine water use in residential, commercial, and institutional landscapes; 2) Evaluate landscape irrigation system performance; and 3) Evaluate feasibility of landscape irrigation scheduling. Beginning in 1991, water meters on 18 test sites in Lincoln, NE were read on a weekly basis. Water meter readings during the winter were used to develop a baseline on non-landscape water use. The “can test” method was used to evaluate landscape irrigation system precipitation rate and distribution efficiency. Four recording weather stations were used to estimate daily potential evapotranspiration (ETp). Lysimeters (20 cm dia. × 31 cm deep) were installed in two Kentucky bluegrass and one tall fescue landscape to estimate water use coefficients for calculating landscape evapotranspiration. Irrigation system Christiansen coefficients of uniformity ranged from .43 to .87 with scheduling coefficients ranging from 1.31 to over 15.14. Poor irrigation system performance characteristics made it difficult to schedule irrigation on estimated water use.

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In June 1991, a two year field study was initiated to examine if three non-turf groundcovers with reputations for using low amounts of water actually use less water than Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). Irrigation treatments were based on percentages of ET (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 0%) and calculated by the modified Penman equation. Results from the 1991 season indicate that at the 100% and 75% treatments Potentilla tabernaemontani and Cerastium tomentosum were significantly better than the other species in terms of establishment and vigor but quality declined significantly at rates below 75%. At the 50% rate both KBG and Sedum acre maintained good quality although growth was slow. At the 25% rate, quality of KBG significantly declined while Sedum acre maintained good quality. Quality of Sedum acre declined only slightly at the 0% treatment and would be a good alternative to KBG if water conservation was a high priority in the landscape.

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. Larger plants in containers tend to require more irrigation, so their removal is thought to reduce irrigation frequency, or at least spot hand-watering. Furthermore, reduced plant density is thought to be associated with reduced levels of shoot diseases

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