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  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Measurements of the respiratory heat production of potatoes, carrots, cabbage, celery, onions, parsnips and rutabagas at 0°C (32°F), 5°C (41°F) and 16°C (61°F) after 1 to 2 and 4 to 6 months of refrigerated storage showed that heat of respiration generally increased with temp (Q10 values generally between 2 and 4), except for some cultivars of potatoes early during storage. Heat of respiration generally decreased with storage time for carrots and parsnips at all temp and for potatoes at 5°C; for the other vegetables it tended to increase with storage time, particularly at 16°C. The rates of heat production were in many instances substantially lower than often used published values for several kinds of vegetables.

Open Access

Abstract

Cropping systems were compared among vegetable crops which are commonly grown for profit on a 5–10 ha farm. Tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill.) ‘Jet Star’], cabbage [Brassica oleracea (L.) var. capitata ‘Sunup’], collards [Brassica oleracea (L.) var. acephala ‘Vates’], and muskmelon [Cucumis melo (L.) ‘Gold Star’] were monocropped; cabbage was intercropped with tomatoes; and collards were intercropped with muskmelon. Crop yield, production cost, and economic returns of the intercrop system were comparable to those of the crops produced alone.

Open Access

Abstract

Double-cropping systems were compared to the same vegetable monocropped. Snap beans [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) ‘Bush Blue Lake’], sweet corn [Zea mays (L.) ‘Sundance’], cauliflower [Brassica oleracea (L.), Botrytis group, ‘Snow Crown’], summer squash [Cucurbita pepo (L.) ‘Zucchini Elite’], and broccoli [Brassica oleracea (L.), Italica group, ‘Green Comet’] were used. The double-crop systems used were spring snap bean and fall cauliflower, summer squash and fall broccoli, and spring sweet corn and fall snap beans. The monocrop system was used as a control for the double-crop systems. The greatest net returns were: 1) squash monocropped or squash/broccoli double-cropped, 2) squash double-cropped, 3) cauliflower or cauliflower/snap bean double-cropped, and 4) broccoli or cauliflower or snap beans monocropped. Fall snap beans provided the least economic return. The double-cropping system allows an option of crop production with a potential increase in yield and economic returns using half the amount of land per year required for either crop grown in monoculture. In addition, these systems reduce the risk of economic failure during a year of low-market demand for either crop grown alone.

Open Access

This experiment was initiated to determine the effects of supplementary lighting of 100 μmol·s-1·m-2 (PAR) in combination with four N rates (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg N/liter) on growth of celery (Apium graveolens L.), lettuce (Luctuca sativa L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants in multicellular trays. Supplementary lighting, as compared with natural light alone, increased shoot dry weight of celery, lettuce, broccoli, and tomato transplants by 22%, 40%, 19%, and 24%, and root dry weight by 97%, 42%, 38%, and 21%, respectively. It also increased the percentage of shoot dry matter of broccoli and tomato, leaf area of lettuce and broccoli, and root: shoot dry weight ratio (RSDWR) of celery and broccoli. Compared with 100 mg N/liter, a N rate of 400 mg·liter-1 increased the shoot dry weight of celery, lettuce, broccoli, and tomato transplants by 37%, 38%, 61%, and 38%, respectively. High N fertilization accelerated shoot growth at the expense of root growth, except for tomato where a 16% increase of root dry weight was observed. High N also reduced percentage of shoot dry matter. Supplementary lighting appears to be a promising technique when used in combination with high N rates to improve the production of high quality transplants, particularly those sown early.

Free access

Transplants of celery (Apium graveolens L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown in multicellular trays under natural light or with supplementary lighting of 100 μmol·s-1·m-2 (PAR) in factorial combination with four rates of N fertilization (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg•liter-1) were tested for productivity under field conditions. Celery was seeded once, lettuce twice, and broccoli and tomato three times. Broccoli and tomato were transplanted at two sites, celery and lettuce at one. Supplementary lighting had no effect on yields of celery, lettuce, and broccoli, but significantly increased yields of early seeded tomato. High rates of N fertilization (300 and 400 mg·liter-1) applied at the transplant stage improved yields for all the species.

Free access

Abstract

Over a 3-year test period a system of multiple cropping using minimum tillage was compared with conventional methods. The minimum tillage operation consisted of rebuilding raised beds in November of each year and planting successive crops with no preparation beyond that required to remove residues of the preceding crop. Using a cropping sequence of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), sweet corn (Zea mays, cv. Aristogold Bantam Evergreen), and southern peas (Vigna sinensis, cv. Calhoun Purple Hull), yields obtained with minimum tillage were equal or superior to those obtained using conventional methods. In addition, minimum tillage left enough time annually to produce a fourth crop of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris, cv. Earlytop 16).

Open Access

contributes ≈65% of the global production of pepper, whereas the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Oceania each contribute 13.3%, 11.9%, 10.1%, and 0.2%, respectively. The increasing value of the pepper crop coincides with its role in international trade [ Table 1

Free access

In recent years, food production under controlled environments, especially at vertical farms (VF), has been gaining attention due to the increasing world population, urbanization, global climate change, competition for resources (e.g., land, water

Open Access

lens ( Fu et al., 2014 ). Determination of superoxide anion production and content of H 2 O 2 and MDA in A. niger and chinese white pear subjected to A. niger infection. A volume of 200-μL spore suspention (10 6 spores/mL) of wild type and Δ sodC

Free access

The respiration rate (O2 uptake) and the rate of C2H4. production were measured before, during, and after 24 hours of treatment with 60% CO2 (20% O2) in 18 kinds of fruits and vegetables by use of an automated system connected to a microcomputer. High CO2 decreased respiration only in climacteric fruit and broccoli, which were producing C2H4. Ethylene production decreased with CO, treatment of peaches, tomatoes, and broccoli, but that of bananas increased. In five nonclimacteric fruits (three citrus species, grapes, and Japanese pears) and several vegetables (carrots, onions, cauliflower, and cabbage), in which C2H4 production was not detected, high CO2 affected respiration little, if at all. When eggplants, cucumbers, podded peas, spinach, and lettuce were treated with high CO2, C2H4 production began and respiration increased. These results indicate that the respiratory responses of harvested horticultural crops to high CO2 might be mediated by the effects of CO2 on the action and/or synthesis of C2H4.

Free access