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Organic vegetable production under glass or in other protected environments, hereto referred as controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) is growing, according to the 2014 census of organic agriculture reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture

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Research on the use of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) in California vegetable production has been conducted for more than 30 years. Since Lorenz et al. (1972) evaluated CRF for potato ( Solanum tuberosum ), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum

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local organic produce. This increased demand has sparked an interest among conventional vegetable growers in certified organic production techniques and has put increasing demand on existing organic growers. Discussions with organic growers, particularly

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, coupled with the ability to extend N availability over a growing season, has led researchers to examine slow-release N fertilizers in vegetable crop production systems ( Sanchez and Doerge, 1999 ). This review article will summarize that body of work

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Vegetable production on small-acreage farms has been gaining popularity in urban or near-large urban cities in recent years and account for 91% of all farms ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007 ). Low-input production practices are an attractive

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Organic vegetable production in the United States must comply with National Organic Program (NOP) standards [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2016 ]. The NOP defines compost as the product of a managed process through which microorganisms

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Land application and landfilling are the most common destination for biosolids in the United States. When properly treated and managed in accordance with the existing state and federal regulations and standards, biosolids are safe for the environment and human health. Application of biosolids in vegetable production as an organic amendment to soils can increase plant growth and produce comparable crop yields with less inorganic nutrients than a standard program of commercial synthetic fertilizers. No application rate of treated biosolids alone will produce crop yields equivalent to commercial fertilizers. Biosolids may be used in conjunction with fertilizer thus lessening the application rate required. The major obstacles to public acceptance are issues concerning water pollution, risk of human disease, and odors. Additionally, heavy metals are an issue of bias with public perception. To ensure safe use of biosolids to a vegetable production systems the agronomic rate (nutrient requirement of the vegetable crop grown) should be calculated before application for the specific crop.

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Conservation tillage is an effective sustainable production system for vegetables. No-till planters and transplanters and strip-till cultivation equipment are presently available for most vegetables. Lack of weed management tools (herbicides, cultivators, etc.) continues to be the cultural practice that limits adaptability of some vegetables to conservation tillage systems. Nitrogen management can be critical when grass winter cover crops are used as a surface residue. Advantages of using conservation tillage include soil and water conservation, improved soil chemical properties, reduction in irrigation requirements, reduced labor requirements, and greater nutrient recycling. However, disadvantages may include lower soil temperatures, which can affect maturity date; higher chemical input (desiccants and post-emergence herbicides); potential pest carryover in residues; and enhancement of some diseases.

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, 2009 ; Varner and Otto, 2008 ). The determination of the cost of production for organic vegetables grown in the upper midwestern United States is further complicated by the highly diversified nature of both crop choices and markets by most organic

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Environmental quality and public health concerns about the use of chemicals in conventional agriculture have driven a large increase in demand for organic food ( Dorais, 2007 ). Acreage of certified organic farm land in vegetable production in the

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