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  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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The popularity of ornamental grasses for use in urban landscapes, parks, median strips, parking lot borders, and for erosion control on slopes has increased in recent years ( Loram et al., 2008 ; Wilson and Knox, 2006 ). This increase is partially

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Abstract

Airborne pollen concentrations (grains/m3) within and near trees of 2 cultivars of Olea europaea L. were studied during the 30-day pollination period at 2 urban sites in Tucson, Ariz. ‘Manzanillo’, the dominant horticultural cultivar, was compared to the fruitless ‘Swan Hill’. Air sampling using a Burkard trap was undertaken from 2 Apr. until 1 May 1985; during this period, 95% of the 1985 Olea pollen was airborne. Peak atmospheric Olea pollen concentrations at both sites occurred on 14 Apr. 1985. Pollen concentrations around the ‘Manzanillo’ site ranged from 7 grains/m3 to 6196 grains/m3 per day. At the ‘Swan Hill’ site, daily totals were an order of magnitude less, from 5 to 309 grains/m3 per day. Hourly pollen concentrations for the ‘Manzanillo’ site on the peak day varied from 1000 to 18,133 grains/m3 per hr. Hourly values at the ‘Swan Hill’ site on the peak day varied from 7 to 896 grains/m3 per hr. Both sites exhibited rapidly increasing pollen concentrations at sunrise with a sharp increase for the ‘Manzanillo’ site between 1100 to 1300 hr. Both cultivars produced about 85,000 pollen grains per anther. An unknown anatomical or physiological factor in ‘Swan Hill’ inhibits stomial rupture, resulting in 85% inhibition of anther dehiscence and pollen-shedding.

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Abstract

A study of seasonal and landscape effects on residential water application rates used to maintain meso-phytic plants in Las Cruces, New Mexico showed a positive significant correlation between water applied and landscape area maintained. However, only one-half of the variation in water applied was accounted for in the analysis. In 2 years, about 40% more water was applied than the estimated requirement. The principal reason for excessive water use appeared to be consumers’ lack of knowledge about plant water requirements.

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Abstract

The leaf roll-necrosis disorder has been identified in collections of lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.) in or near the cities of New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. Observed symptom differences among lilacs at 6 sites were largely quantitative, indicating the occurrence of incitants common to all locations. Activated charcoal and 4,4’-dioctyldiphenylamine filter chambers applied to branches reduced injury and provided corroborating evidence that air pollutants, including oxidant-type, were causal factors. Monitoring data from New York City and Philadelphia revealed progressively decreasing pollutant levels in recent years that coincided with decreases in severity of the disorder. Fluoride was not a causal agent, based on low levels in leaves. In experimental fumigations of lilac clones, although the results were inconclusive regarding identification of causal pollutants, ozone and sulfur dioxide induced some symptoms of the disorder. The occurrence of additional field symptoms suggested the involvement of other, as yet unidentified, phytotoxic pollutants.

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bigleaf maple [ A. macrophyllum (42.74% GC)], which performs poorly in urban conditions and overall is less adaptable. Future studies may further investigate whether there is a correlation between GC% and climate at the site of evolution of maple species

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1 Soil physicist. 2 Urban forest researcher. 3 Professor. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges, Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertise ment solely to indicate

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Abbreviations: CER, carbon exchange rate; FC, fabric containers; FG, field grown; PC, plastic containers; Ψ leaf , leaf water potential. 1 Current address: Urban Horticulture Institute, 20 Plant Science Bldg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853

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Responses of five bottomland tree taxa to drought and flooding were studied to identify those adapted to urban environments. During one experiment, containerized `Franksred' red maple [Acer rubrum L. `Franksred' (trademark = Red Sunset)], sweetbay magnolia (Magnolia virginiana L.), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), bald cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.], and pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal.] were treated with various irrigation regimes for up to 118 days. Net assimilation rate (NAR) and relative growth rate (RGR) were reduced more by flooding than by drought for plants of all taxa, except pawpaw, which showed similar NAR and RGR during flooding and drought. Only sweetbay magnolia and bald cypress maintained positive NAR and RGR during flooding, and sweetbay magnolia was the only taxon that did not produce significantly less leaf surface area, shoot dry mass, and root dry mass during flooding and drought. Apparent morphological mechanisms of stress resistance included an increase in specific mass of leaves (mg·cm-2) during drought for red maple and bald cypress and a 385% increase in the root: shoot mass ratio for droughted plants of pawpaw. Leaf water relations of drought- and flood-stressed `Franksred' red maple and sweetbay magnolia were determined in a second experiment. Predawn and mid-day leaf water potential (ψ) decreased with decreasing root-zone matric potential for both taxa, and transpiration rate was reduced by drought and flooding. Pressure-volume analysis showed that leaves of `Franksred' red maple responded to drought by shifting symplastic water to the apoplast. Leaves of drought-stressed sweetbay magnolia adjusted osmotically by reducing osmotic potential (ψπ) at full turgor by 0.26 MPa. Our results suggest that sweetbay magnolia and bald cypress will perform well at urban planting sites where episodes of drought and flooding regularly occur.

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Research was conducted to investigate how energy balance of bark mulch and turf surfaces influence gas exchange and growth of recently transplanted trees. On several occasions over a 3-year period, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were measured throughout the day on `Emerald Queen' Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and `Greenspire' littleleaf linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) trees growing over each surface. Tree water loss was estimated using a general transport flux equation applied to the tree crown apportioned between sunlit and shade layers. Microclimate variables were measured over each surface with a permanent weather station. Tree growth data were collected at the end of each growing season. Soil heat flux data revealed that a greater portion of incoming radiation was prevented from entering the soil below mulch than below turf. Due to this insulating effect, and consequent lack of evaporative cooling, mulch surface temperature was greater, and emitted more longwave radiation, than turf. Leaves over mulch intercepted more longwave radiation, had greater leaf temperature, and greater leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference than leaves over turf. As a result, leaves over mulch had greater stomatal closure than leaves over turf. Estimated tree water loss varied between surface treatments and with climatic conditions. Trees over turf had greater shoot elongation and leaf area than trees over mulch. These data suggest that gas exchange and growth of recently transplanted trees in an arid climate may be reduced if planted over nonvegetative, urban surfaces.

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A 2-year study was conducted to quantify the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of three woody ornamental trees placed under three different leaching fractions (LFs). Argentine mesquite (Prosopis alba Grisebach), desert willow [Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) Sweet var. linearis], and southern live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) (nursery seedling selection) were planted as 3.8-, 18.9-, or 56.8-liter container nursery stock outdoors in 190-liter plastic lysimeters in which weekly hydrologic balances were maintained. Weekly storage changes were measured with a portable hoist-load cell apparatus. Irrigations were applied to maintain LFs of +0.25, 0.00, or -0.25 (theoretical) based on the equation irrigation (I) = ETa/(1 - LF). Tree height, trunk diameter, canopy volume, leaf area index, total leaf area (oak only) and dry weight were monitored during the experiment or measured at final harvest. Average yearly ETa was significantly influenced by planting size (oak and willow, P ≤ 0.001) and leaching fraction imposed (P ≤ 0.001). Multiple regressions accounting for the variability in average yearly ETa were comprised of different growth and water management variables depending on the species. LF, trunk diameter, and canopy volume accounted for 92% (P ≤ 0.001) of the variability in the average yearly ETa of oak. Monthly ETa data were also evaluated, with multiple regressions based on data from nonwater-deficit trees, such that LF could be ignored. In the case of desert willow, monthly potential ET and trunk diameter accounted for 88% (P ≤ 0.001) of the variability in the monthly ETa. Results suggest that irrigators could apply water to arid urban landscapes more efficiently if irrigations were scheduled based on such information.

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