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Youbin Zheng, Diane Feliciano Cayanan, and Mike Dixon

The use of a recirculating subirrigation system is becoming increasingly popular in the greenhouse industry. In a survey on the status of nutrient solution recirculation in Ontario, Canada, Richard et al. (2006) found that almost half of the

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Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu, Michael V. Mickelbart, and Douglass F. Jacobs

Increased demand for container nursery stock for commercial forestry, restoration/wildlife plantings, and landscaping has generated a need to optimize watering methods, media types, and nutrient management ( Oliet and Jacobs, 2012 ). Subirrigation

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Geoffrey Matthew Weaver, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

to conserve nutrients and prevent losses ( Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001 ; Majsztrik et al., 2011 ). Subirrigation is an irrigation technique that provides water or fertilizer solution to the bottom of containers. Capillary action of the substrate provides

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Maycon Diego Ribeiro, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, and Roberto Testezlaf

Subirrigation has the potential to increase the irrigation efficiency in greenhouse potted production, due to the recirculation of NS, reduction in water loss and chemical leaching, and less environmental contamination caused by the improper

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Leqi Yang, Xiao Yang, Hong Zhao, Danfeng Huang, and Dongqin Tang

). Therefore, the challenge remains to develop environmentally friendly irrigation management techniques that enable optimal crop production. Subirrigation is a water-saving, high-efficiency fertigation strategy in which intelligent control enables sustainable

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Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu, and Douglass F. Jacobs

, water interception by leaves of broad-leaved plants creates uneven water distribution in overhead systems ( Landis and Wilkinson, 2004 ). Subirrigation could serve as a viable alternative to overhead systems for container seedling propagation of

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Darren J. Hayes and Bryan J. Peterson

subirrigation systems, with the former representing a reliable industry standard and the latter representing a low-cost and low-tech alternative that may produce comparable, or even superior, results for some taxa ( Svenson, 2018 ; Zhang and Graves, 1995 ). We

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

comply with environmental regulations while reducing production costs ( Lumis et al., 2000 ; Majsztrik et al., 2011 ). Recirculating irrigation systems, including subirrigation, prevent leaching and runoff because excess nutrient solution is collected

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Layla J. Dunlap, Jeremiah R. Pinto, and Anthony S. Davis

gain more attention in native plant nurseries, the “ebb-n-flow” closed subirrigation watering systems are of interest in this pursuit. In a closed subirrigation system, water can be moved from a reservoir tank into an application basin where the plants

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Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Flávio Bussmeyer Arruda, and Roberto Testezlaf

; Landis et al., 2006 ). Manual irrigation systems also promote excessive water loss resulting from runoff and salt accumulation with potential to contaminate surface and groundwater ( Soares, 2003 ). As an alternative, subirrigation applies water to the