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The term Ethnobotany describes the study of people's relationships to plants as foods, fibers, medicines, dyes, and tools throughout the ages. Using the student active technique of experiential learning, undergraduate students enrolled in landscape design and implementation classes at Clemson University planned and installed an Ethnobotany garden in partnership with the South Carolina Botanical Garden (SCBG) staff, volunteers, and Sprouting Wings children. Sprouting Wings is an after-school gardening and nature exploration program for under-served elementary school students. College students and faculty working on this service-learning project contributed over 1,000 hours to their community while learning more about both the art and the science of landscape design and implementation. Students enrolled in the landscape Implementation class were surveyed to evaluate their perceptions on a variety of possible learning outcomes for this class. Students indicated that their service learning experience with the Ethnobotany project allowed them to acquire and practice new skills, broadened their understanding of the surrounding community, increased their ability to work in real world situations, introduced new career possibilities, gave students a better understanding of their course work, increased their ability to work on a team, increased their knowledge of environmental sustainability, and allowed them to discover or develop leadership capabilities. In a survey question regarding preference for service learning rather than traditional classes, the majority of students prefer the service learning pedagogy. In addition, most students reported a high degree of initiative for this project in their reflections.

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Enabling citizens to have meaningful participation in public discussions of issues interfacing science/technology and society (STS) has long been a goal of science education. Involving students in investigating issues may be the most effective way of insuring continued involvement as adults. Global, national, and local horticultural issues can provide concepts for learning relevant science concepts, process skills, and other outcomes. Selecting and designing investigations of horticulture issues include input from both students and teacher. Questions that get at scientific concepts, technological implications, and societal concerns related to the issue give direction and scope to the study. The questions and responses can be student initiated with teacher guidance. Students gain experience in examining and discussing societal issues, recognizing interdependence of STS, and learning relevant science as well. As a result, students perceive horticulture as having relevance to their concerns rather than as an isolated discipline,

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ePortfolios are gaining popularity in academic communities worldwide. Purposes of ePortfolios include: converting student work from paper to digital format, thereby allowing it to be centrally organized, searchable, and transportable throughout their academic lives and careers; promoting student centered learning and reflection; improving advising; and career planning and resume building. Pennsylvania State University is investing in the use of ePortfolios in course work throughout the university system. To facilitate these efforts, the university provides all students and faculty with 500 MB of hosted web space to create and share their portfolios. One of the courses using ePortfolios is Horticulture 120, Computer Applications for Landscape Contracting, in the Landscape Contracting program. Outcomes of implementing ePortfolios include increased availability of student work to potential employers, enhanced recruiting through displays of student work, and enabled reflection on completed work. Students showed improved quality in project work because their projects would be publicly available through the Internet to potential employers, faculty, family, and other students.

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This study compared student learning outcomes of two teaching methodologies: a summary lecture and an asynchronous web-based method that included a case study (www.hightunnels.org/planningcasestudy.htm) followed by an all-class discussion. Twenty-one students taking an upper-level undergraduate course in greenhouse management were randomly split into two groups. Each group experienced both methodologies with presentations designed to provide complimentary information about site planning for protected environment structures; however, the order in which the groups received the methods was reversed. After each presentation, the participants were given an identical quiz (Time 1 and Time 2) comprised of questions that assessed knowledge gained, higher-order learning, and their perception of how confident they would be in solving actual site planning scenarios. Though quiz scores were not different between the two groups after Time 1 or 2, overall quiz scores improved after Time 2 for both groups combined (P = 0.03). When questions were categorized as lower-order vs. higher-order learning, a greater increase in scores was observed in higher-order learning (P = 0.12 vs. P = 0.04, respectively). Although students' perceived confidence was not influenced by which method was received first (P = 0.23), their confidence increased after Time 2 compared to Time 1 (P = 0.07). Rather than one teaching method being superior to the other, this study suggests that it is beneficial to use both. Interestingly, while students overwhelmingly preferred to receive the summary lecture before the web-based method, there was no significant difference in test scores between the two orders, suggesting that neither order offered any advantage.

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President, I had the opportunity to sit with a group of graduate students for an information exchange session. Their ideas and input were being sought as to how to improve the ASHS and to better serve graduate students and developing professionals. A wide

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cultural pride ( Reyns et al., 2013 ). Most college students spend their time studying online. Internet or online learning has become an indispensable tool for university students. The pooled prevalence of internet addiction among university students is ≈5

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to landscape management professionals attending service-learning workshops (from June 2006 through Oct. 2007) at the Tennessee Nursery and Landscape Association winter workshop in Pigeon Forge, TN; Middle Tennessee Nursery Association Trade Show in

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theoretical concepts such as learning, evolution, and overload/arousal ( Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989 ). For example, the evolution theory maintains that because we evolved in environments consisting primarily of plants, we tend to have positive psychological and

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J.B. Edmond Undergraduate Student Paper Competition The Acidification of Hardwood Bark for the Production of Acid-loving Nursery Crops Mark Wilson*, Edward Bush, Daniel Wells, and Jeff Beasley; LSU AgCenter SPESS, 137 J.C. Miller Hall, Baton

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uptake, and the basic anatomy of stems, shoots and roots. Subsequent chapters focus very strongly on the outcomes of the research work done by DeJong and his colleagues and students at UC Davis culminating, over the past 30 years, in the development of

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