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Zongrang Liu, Ralph Scorza, Jean-Michel Hily, Simon W. Scott, and Delano James

21 to 26-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNA) ( Hamilton and Baulcombe, 1999 ; Hamilton et al., 2002 ). siRNAs are generated by cleavage of the large dsRNA by a DICER RNase III homologue ( Hannon, 2002 ). siRNA is subsequently incorporated

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Jean-Michel Hily, Michel Ravelonandro, Vern Damsteegt, Carole Bassett, Cesar Petri, Zongrang Liu, and Ralph Scorza

, but it also serves as a component of adaptive protection against mobile genetic elements, such as transposons and viruses ( Voinnet, 2005 ). A key component of the pathway is known as small interfering RNA (siRNA) ( Hamilton and Baulcombe, 1999

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Jean-Michel Hily, Ralph Scorza*, and Michel Ravelonandro

We have shown that high-level resistance to plum pox virus (PPV) in transgenic plum clone C5 is based on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), otherwise termed RNA silencing (Scorza et al. Transgenic Res. 10:201-209, 2001). In order to more fully characterize RNA silencing in woody perennial crops, we investigated the production of short interfering RNA (siRNA) in transgenic plum clones C3 and C5, both of which harbor the capsid protein (CP) gene of PPV. We used as a control, plum PT-23, a clone only transformed with the two marker genes, NPTII and GUS. We show in the current report that C5 constitutively produces two classes of siRNA, the short (21-22 nucleotides) and long (≈27 nucleotides) species in the absence of PPV inoculation. Transgenic susceptible clone C3 and the control clone PT-23, when healthy, produce no siRNA. Upon infection, these clones produce only the short siRNA (21-22 nt). This siRNA production suggests that plum trees naturally respond to virus infection by initiating PTGS or PTGS-like mechanisms. This study also suggests that high-level virus resistance in woody perennials may require the production of both the short and long size classes of siRNA, as are produced by the resistant C5 plum clone.

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Elysia K. Krieger, Edwards Allen, Larry A. Gilbertson, James K. Roberts, William Hiatt, and Rick A. Sanders

responsible for the Flavr Savr phenotype by characterizing the T-DNA locus of the Flavr Savr tomato event and analyzing for the presence of 21-nt PG small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) diagnostic of RNAi. Materials and Methods Tomato plants. CF5013

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Guo-qing Song, Aaron E. Walworth, and Wayne H. Loescher

proteins may result in less concern about transgenic products in nontransgenic scions. Mobility of RNA Signals Phloem flow clearly facilitates transport of RNAs (i.e., viral RNAs, mRNAs, rRNAs, tRNAs, siRNAs, and microRNAs) over long-distances. These

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Robert J. Griesbach, Ronald M. Beck, John Hammond, and John R. Stommel

. The mRNA is then cleaved between the 10th and 11th bases from the 5′ end of miRNA match. The cleaved mRNA is further degraded by Exoribonuclease 4 (XRN4). Another class of small RNAs called silencing RNAs (siRNAs) behave in the same manner as miRNAs

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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Richard Hassell, and Judy Thies

genes ( Lough and Lucas, 2006 ; Omid et al., 2007 ). Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing, a gene expression regulation mechanism involved in different layers of plant innate immunity ( Padmanabhan et al., 2009

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Derek W. Barchenger, Joseph I. Said, Yang Zhang, Mingzhou Song, Franchesca A. Ortega, Yeasong Ha, Byoung-Cheorl Kang, and Paul W. Bosland

accurate. For example, PPR96 was found to be involved in plant responses to salinity, abscisic acid, and oxidative stress in arabidopsis ( Liu et al., 2016 ). Several studies found that PPR genes are subject to regulatory control by siRNA, miRNA, and

Open access

Andrey Vega-Alfaro, Carlos Ramírez-Vargas, Germán Chávez, Fernando Lacayo, Paul C. Bethke, and James Nienhuis

et al., 2008 ; Gutiérrez-Benites, 2018 ; Wang et al., 2017 ). Moreover, grafting may induce epigenetic effects by producing mobile signals (siRNAs) that alter the transcription of genes and direct methylation changes in the scion ( Bhogale et al

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Dineshkumar Selvaraj, Sherif Sherif, Mohd Sabri Pak Dek, Gopinadhan Paliyath, Islam El-Sharkawy, and Jayasankar Subramanian

. Scorza, R. Webb, K. Ravelonandro, M. 2005 Accumulation of the long class of siRNA is associated with resistance to plum pox virus in a transgenic woody perennial plum tree Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 18 794 799 Holton, T.A. Cornish, E.C. 1995 Genetics