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the relative contribution of sexual and asexual reproduction to this species’ competitiveness is unknown. The floral reproductive biology of creeping bellflower is well studied because of transient self-incompatibility in which the stigmas of the

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) being the most common in greenhouses and container nurseries ( Marble et al., 2017 ). Common liverwort spreads rapidly in nurseries and greenhouses as a result of its ability to propagate both asexually and sexually ( Ross and Puritch, 1981 ). It is not

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such as herbicide treatments, desiccation, or freezing temperatures. In contrast, the phenology of the biotypes differs in substantial ways (i.e., sexual reproduction, tuber production, and winter behavior). The monoecious biotype produces seeds and the

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reproduction ( Kirk, 1987 ). However, there are no quantitative studies that have actually substantiated claims made regarding using sugar or sugar-based compounds with contact insecticides to enhance efficacy against western flower thrips. Therefore, the

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of red beet J. Agr. Sci. Cambridge 104 615 624 Bolton, M.D. Secor, G.A. Rivera, V. Weiland, J.J. Rudolph, K. Birla, K. Rengifo, J. Campbell, L.G. 2012 Evaluation of the potential for sexual reproduction in field populations of Cercospora beticola

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mitotic cell division pathway to avoid the significant genetic disruption imposed on conventional breeding by meiosis (sexual reproduction). This technology also allows for the development of new cultivars with different attributes (e.g., skin friability

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relatively long history of P. capsici ( Ristaino and Johnston, 1999 ) may have favored isolates virulent to resistant cultivars. P. capsici can increase in virulence after sexual reproduction and genetic recombination of parent isolates ( Satour and

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spikes should be ( Fig. 2B ). Pseudoviviparous growth is defined as the substitution of asexual propagules (plantlets) in place of sexual reproductive structures such as seeds ( Elmqvist and Cox, 1996 ). When plants received 6 weeks of exposure to short

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identification courses; plant phenology in biology or ecology courses; or sexual reproduction, seed production, seed dormancy/germination, and plug production in propagation courses. Another useful educational experience is in field activities that involve hands

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., 2014 ; Meyer and Hausbeck, 2013a ). The presence of both mating types of P. capsici in a field results in sexual reproduction and the generation of thick-walled oospores capable of surviving in the soil for many years ( Babadoost, 2004 ; Carlson et

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