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of phenylalanine and flavonoid biosynthesis were significantly enriched. In P vs. B, 12, 11, and 2 unigenes were annotated to the phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway, flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and flavonoid flavonol biosynthetic pathway

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). Commercial flavonoid standards of procyanidins (B1 and B2), catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin glycosides, and cyanidin glycosides were purchased from Chromadex (Irvine, CA). Neochlorogenic acid was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Five flavonoid

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, all procyanidins by the standard curve of procyanidin B2, all kaempferol compounds by kaempferol-3-glucoside, and quercetin (Q) compounds (except Q-rutinoside, Q-galactoside, Q-glucoside, Q-rhamnoside, Q-arabinofuranoside, and Q-xyloside) by quercetin

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acid in acetonitrile (Solvent B) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL·min −1 . After equilibration, 6 μL of each sample was injected. An increasingly linear gradient of Solvent B (v/v) was used as follows: 2% Solvent B for the first minute, from 2% to 50% Solvent

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., 2004 ). The phylogenetic tree we constructed using LhWDR and homologous proteins from fourteen other species ( Fig. 1B ) revealed that LhWDR clustered in the MP1 clade, which included VvWDR2, MP1, and AtAN11. Fig. 1. Protein sequence alignment and

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commercial cultivars. The replicated clones included: NC 3961, NC 4263, NC 4365, NC 4385, NC 4398, NC 4900, SA-10:135 (NC 4399), SA-13:75 (NC 4807), SA-4:2 (NC 4563), SHF2B1-20:21 (NC 5018), SHF2B1-21:3 (NC 5021), SHF2B1-25:25 (NC 5042), and SHF2B1-25:41 (NC

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cultivars Acta Aliment. 29 217 230 10.1556/AAlim.29.2000.3.2 Jones, R.B. Imsic, M. Franz, P. Tomkins, B.T. 2007 High nitrogen during growth reduced glucoraphanin and flavonol content in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica ) heads Austral. J. Expt

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related ( Fig. 2B ). Fig. 2. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) numbers and gene ontology (GO) functional classifications of banana peel samples of control fruit (CF1) and procyanidin-treated fruit (PF1) on day 1. ( A ) DEGs numbers between CF1 and PF1

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polymers and oligomers of gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers. Hot acid treatment of procyanidins yields cyanidin (two hydroxy groups on the B carbon ring), whereas prodelphinidins yield delphinidin (with three hydroxy groups) ( Bule et al. 2020

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* [yellow (+) vs. blue (−)]. The CIE a* and b* scores for fresh pods were highly correlated with TPC; however, the L* score for fresh pods was not correlated to TPC ( Table 2 ). The association between CIE color scores and TPC was less pronounced with frozen

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