Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 310 items for :

  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
Clear All
Authors: , , , , and

there was no significant difference in photosynthetic CO 2 response between the grafted plants and the control plants when the tomato leaves were measured during the flowering period ( Zhang and Guo, 2019 ). Potassium cannot only promote the synthesis

Open Access

`Oso Grande' and `Sweet Charlie' strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) in 1991-92 and `Oso Grande' and `Seascape' in 1992-93 were grown in a K fertilization study using polyethylene-mulched and fumigated beds. Potassium was injected weekly into the drip irrigation system at 0.28,0.56,0.84, 1.12, and 1.40 kg K/ha per day. Early, March, and total-season marketable fruit yields were not affected by K rate during either season. The average fruit weight of `Oso Grande' for the early, March, and total-season harvest periods in the 1992-93 season decreased with increased K rate. For the same harvest periods, `Seascape' average fruit weight increased, decreased, and did not change, respectively, with increased K rate. Cull fruit yield during both seasons and fruit firmness during the 1992-93 season were not affected by K rate. Petiole sap, whole leaf, and leaf blade K concentrations increased with increasing K rates on most sampling dates during both seasons. `Oso Grande' and `Sweet Charlie' produced similar total marketable fruit yields the first season, but `Oso Grande' produced higher total yields than `Seascape' during all harvest periods of the second season.

Free access

. Brown and Pokorny (1977) reported that soluble potassium applied to the top of a pine bark-filled column resulted in K + adsorption to the bark and that the distribution of that adsorbed K + was uneven throughout the column with most retained in the

Free access
Authors: and

plant growth (Crafts-Brandner et al., 1998; Lemaître et al., 2008 ; Wingler et al., 2006 ). Phosphorus is a macronutrient of crucial importance in signaling, photosynthesis, and other metabolism ( Marschner, 1995 ). Potassium is an essential nutrient

Free access

A xylem mutant (vse) was isolated from a Bambusa edulis (Odashima) Keng plantlet following vegetative micropropagation and subculture for 7 consecutive years and induced to proliferate in medium supplemented with 0.1 mg·L-1 (0.5 μm) thidiazuron (TDZ) and to develop roots in medium supplemented with 5 mg·L-1 (26.9 μm) α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Subsequent investigations comparing the growth habits of mutant plantlets with those of the wild type indicated that the growth of the former was retarded in a greenhouse. Several morphological abnormalities were observed in the vse mutant: it had thinner stems with fewer trichromes on the surface; the xylem vessels were smaller in diameter and contained crystal-like structures in the pith; the leaves were shorter and narrower with a sharp leaf blade angle; the roots were thinner and contained fewer xylem cells. The cation concentrations of both the mutant and wild type were similar in the in vitro analysis, except for those of iron and potassium, which were lower in mutant leaves in vivo. In 2-month-old mutant plants, iron chlorosis was observed on young leaves and a potassium deficiency was observed on older leaves. After 1 year of growth in the greenhouse, all of the wild-type plants had survived, but only 27% (16/60) of the mutant vse plants were alive.

Free access

A study was undertaken to determine the seasonal dynamics of leaf and fruit K content and the influence of tree K status and fruit growth on leaf and fruit K accumulation rates in French prune (Prunus domestics L. cv. d'Agen). Mature trees in a commercial orchard were treated with various rates of K2 SO4. (O to ≈20 kg/tree) in the fall. Fruit dry weight yield per tree at harvest and fruit K content were higher for high-K trees, but fruit percent K (by dry weight) was ≈1.0% for all trees. Leaf scorch and subsequent abscission severely reduced the canopy of K-deficient trees. Significant positive linear relationships between leaf and fruit K accumulation rates existed for the periods of 28 Apr.-28 May (May) and 28 May-7 July (June). A significant negative linear relationship existed between these two criteria from 7 July-3 Aug. (July). May (0.237 mg K per fruit-day) and July (0.267 mg K per fruit-day) mean fruit K accumulation rates were similar, but both were significantly higher (P = 0.001) than those for June (0.140 mg K per fruit-day). Mean leaf K accumulation rates for May (- 0.007 mg K per leaf-day) and July (-0.010 mg K per leaf-day) were similar, but both were significantly (P = 0.001) less than for June (0.005 mg K per leaf-day). Potassium per fruit accumulation was highest in trees with highest K status. Periods of net leaf K efflux and influx did not precisely correlate with fruit growth stages measured by fruit dry weight. The period of lowest fruit K accumulation (28 May-7 July) coincided with the period of maximum dry matter accumulation by the kernel. After 7 July, all increases in fruit dry weight and K content were due to mesocarp growth.

Free access
Authors: and

A systematic study was conducted on the ability of potassium permanganate absorbent to remove low levels of ethylene from the atmosphere. Absorption of potassium permanganate onto alumina beads by dipping in a saturated solution was maximal at 2 g/100 g after 2 hours at 20 °C and 4 g/100 g after 1 hour at 65 °C. Commercial alumina-based absorbents were found to contain potassium permanganate at 2.7 to 6.0 g/100 g suggesting many are prepared at elevated temperature. Trials in a closed system at 20 °C and 60% to 70% RH with alumina beads containing potassium permanganate at 4 g/100 g showed a logarithmic decrease in ethylene concentration with 90% of the ethylene removed after 2.5 to 3.0 hours. Relative humidity (RH) had a marked inverse effect on ethylene absorption with reactivity at 100% RH calculated to be 15% of that at 0% RH. Performance of potassium permanganate where ethylene was continually generated by a continuous flow of ethylene at 14 μL·h-1 through the container showed a steady state was attained within 1 hour and maintained for 24 hours. Ethylene removal increased linearly with bead weight and ranged from 30% with 1 g to 90% with 50 g. Examination over 20 days showed a continuing decrease in rate of ethylene removal which after 14 days had declined to 10% of incoming ethylene although 44% of the original level of potassium permanganate still remained in the beads. Calculations based on known endogenous ethylene production rates suggest that at 20 °C and 90% RH, use of a potassium permanganate-alumina absorbent would be beneficial with produce having a low level of ethylene generation. Suitability for larger packages of produce generating higher ethylene levels is questionable as >1 kg of absorbent may be required.

Free access
Author:

Abstract

A field planting of ‘Bluecrop’, a mature highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), on a Berryland soil type was subjected to differential levels of K fertilization over a 6-year period. Fruit yield and berry size were related to fertilizer treatment, leaf composition, and available soil K analysis. Blueberry production was highest at a 40 kg K/ha rate of potassium sulfate fertilizer which resulted in a leaf K sufficiency range between 0.45% and 0.55% K. Available soil K was significantly correlated to fruit yield.

Open Access

Seeds in fruit of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum `California Wonder') plants grown in nutrient solutions deficient in potassium (<3 mmol·L-1) showed a higher incidence of sprouting (i.e., vivipary) than seeds in fruit from plants grown at adequate potassium levels (6 mmol·L-1). Tissue analysis showed a progressive drop in the leaf content of potassium with increasing plant maturation for all levels of potassium nutrition. However, potassium in fruit and seeds increased at later stages of maturity. ABA was extracted, isolated and identified from bell pepper seeds obtained from fruit grown under the potassium treatments (0.0, 0.6, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mmol·L-1) at five fruit maturity stages (mature-green to overripe). At early fruit maturity stages, there were no significant differences in seed ABA content in the fruit from the different potassium treatments. However, differences in ABA content and vivipary among the potassium treatments became highly significant as the fruit matured. The concentration of ABA in seeds of potassium-deficient treatments was ≈14% of the control (0.4 versus 2.8 μg·g-1 dry mass). High concentrations of ABA in bell pepper seeds were associated with low incidence of vivipary and high potassium content in the leaves, fruit and nutrient solution.

Free access

The effect of soluble potassium silicate applied to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), muskmelon (C. melo L.), and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) on the severity of powdery mildew was examined. Application methods included amending nutrient solutions to a concentration of 1.7 mm Si and foliar sprays containing 1.7, 8.5, 17, and 34 mm Si. Untreated plants and plants sprayed with distilled water were used as controls. The leaves of all plants were inoculated with known concentrations of conidia of Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht.:Fr.) Poll. (cucumber and mu&melon) or Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.: Merat (zucchini squash) 1 day after the sprays were applied. Inoculated leaves on plants receiving the Si-amended nutrient solution or foliar sprays of ≥ 17.0 mm Si developed fewer powdery mildew colonies than those on control plants. Results of a separate experiment that included a potassium spray, indicated that the active ingredient of the potassium silicate sprays appears to be Si. Experiments to test the persistence of Si foliar sprays on cucumber demonstrated that a 17 mm Si spray applied 7 days before inoculation with S. fuliginea reduced mildew colony formation.

Free access