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  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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; Chen and Yu, 2013 ; Hegarty and Hiscock, 2008 ; Laport and Ng, 2017 ; Madlung, 2013 ). For plant breeders, knowledge of ploidy is particularly important because it influences reproductive compatibility, fertility of hybrids, and gene expression

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chromosomal systems that allow permanent propagation of odd ploidies ( Grant, 1981 ). In cases where triploids set seed sexually, they can serve as a genetic bridge, allowing gene exchange between diploids and tetraploids, both in natural populations and in

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, accurate and specific knowledge of ploidy levels of species and cultivars is important information for magnolia breeders. The genus Magnolia comprises more than 250 species belonging to various sections within three subgenera ( Figlar and Nooteboom, 2004

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investigated have been tetraploid, higher ploidy levels have been reported including hexaploids (‘Aphrodite’, ‘Diana’, ‘Helene’, ‘Minerva’, ‘Melrose’, ‘Pink Giant’, and ‘Shimsan’) and octoploids (‘Purple CV’, ‘Purple CV 2 ’, ‘Red Heart CV’, ‘Sp 1 ’, Sp 2 ’, and

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ploidy series, with estimates of 70% tetraploid (2 n = 4 x = 68), 15% triploid (2 n = 3 x = 51), and 10% diploid (2 n = 2 x = 34), and the remaining species of greater ploidy level ( Fryer and Hylmö, 2009 ). Apomixis is common in Cotoneaster and

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and species or cultivars of tree peony (section Moutan ) served as the male parent ( Qin, 2004 ; Yang and Yu, 2016 ). Herbaceous peonies have rich germplasm diversity in terms of external morphology and chromosome ploidy ( Hao et al., 2016 ; Ji et

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, depending on taxonomic treatment ( Li, 2011 ; Suh et al., 2000 ; Zhang et al., 2010 ). Although many teams are working on clarifying taxonomy, relatively little has been reported on genome size and ploidy level within the genus. Three original papers

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Phlox (Polemoniaceae) is a phenotypically diverse genus with substantial interpopulation differentiation for numerous morphological characters and ploidy; it includes ≈65 species with centers of diversity in the eastern and western United States

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nature of Salvia and vast geographic spread, remarkable variations in chromosome number and ploidy exist across the genus. Ploidy levels range from diploid to octoploid, and chromosome base numbers include x = 6–11, 13, 14, 15, 17, and 19 ( Delestaing

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successfully used in warm-season grasses ( Harris-Shultz et al., 2013 ; Mulkey et al., 2013 ). With the interest in little bluestem, and the horticultural planting of a few recommended cultivars, we aimed to determine ploidy level and to create SSR markers to

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