strawberry ( CDFA, 2007 ). While numerous studies provide evidence of the physiological effect of elevated CO 2 concentration on many plant species in growth chambers, research on raspberry examined physiological processes such as photosynthesis, but yield
chitosan as a soil amendment might also result from its direct effect on plant nutrient status and metabolism, and photosynthesis. Soil-applied chitosan increased the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total sugars, and soluble proteins as well as
effects such as reduced net photosynthesis and yield or leaf abscission ( Durner, 2013 ; Vu et al., 2001 ). The effect of water stress on the decrease in photosynthetic activity has been primarily attributed to stomata closure and reduced transpiration
, this difference could provide additional shading, fitting the supposition of Quezada et al. (2007 ). Additional N can reduce plant stress, specifically by reducing inhibition of photosynthesis brought on by high-temperature stress ( Huang et al
the decreased (or more negative) ψ S of the solution, or affected by excessive ion uptake because of greater ion concentrations in solution ( Greenway and Munns, 1980 ). Photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance ( g S ) under high EC
Tree fruit rootstocks are used to influence precocity, tree size, fruit quality, yield efficiency, mineral uptake, and to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the history and literature of apple (Malus domestica) rootstocks and their effects on scion tree growth, yield, fruit quality, leaf mineral nutrition, and photosynthesis. Then, the results of our long-term study on the effects of rootstocks on tree growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral nutrition, and one season of photosynthesis measurement in `BC-2 Fuji' will be presented and discussed. In this study, `Fuji' trees on `Malling 9 NAKBAT337' (M.9) rootstock had the smallest trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), highest yield efficiency, and were the most precocious followed by those on `East Malling-Long Ashton 26' (M.26 EMLA) and `East Malling-Long Ashton 7' (M.7 EMLA). Trees on M.7 EMLA often had larger fruit with less color than those on M.9 and M.26 EMLA. Trees on M.7 EMLA frequently had greater leaf K than those on other rootstocks. Trees on M.26 EMLA always had greater leaf Mg than those on other rootstocks. Leaves from the current terminal shoots (CTS) of trees on M.9 had higher net photosynthesis and transpiration than those on M.7 EMLA rootstock during 1998 growing season.
yield of tomato ( Ilić et al., 2012 ; Kittas et al., 2012 ). Shading also improved tomato fruit quality by reducing cracking and sunscald, and increase marketable fruit percentage ( Ilić et al., 2012 ; Kittas et al., 2012 ). Plant photosynthesis is
Research suggests that blackleaf (a leaf disorder in grape, Vitis labrusca L.) is induced by high levels of ultra violet (UV) radiation and overall light intensity, resulting in color changes (purple-brown-black) for sun-exposed leaves of the outer canopy, and a corresponding >50% reduction in photosynthesis. Metabolic indicators (photosynthesis and leaf water potential), percent blackleaf expression, and full spectrum leaf reflectance were mapped within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS) and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with a specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Remote-image analysis indicated a decrease in percent greenness of about 45% between July and August, which was related to a decrease in photosynthesis and an increase in blackleaf symptom expression within the canopy. Examination of full spectral leaf reflectance indicated differences at specific wavelengths for grape leaves exposed to UV or water-deficit stress. This work suggests that remote-image and leaf spectral reflectance analysis may be a strong tool for monitoring changes in metabolism associated with plant stress.
, and plant photosynthesis ( Grattan and Grieve, 1999 ; Taiz and Zeiger, 2015 ). Aesthetically appealing landscapes are needed to meet the demand of rapidly growing urban populations for high-quality living environments. Landscape irrigation will
Of 18 commonly used adjuvants evaluated on pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch], a few exhibited potential for substantially suppressing net photosynthesis (A) and the conductance of foliage to water vapor (g sw ) when used within their recommended concentration range; however, most provided no evidence of adversely influencing A or g sw . Suppression of gas exchange by certain adjuvants persisted at least 14 days after a single application. The recently developed organosilicone-based surfactants generally exhibited the greatest potential for suppression. These data indicate that orchard managers should consider the potential adverse influence of certain adjuvants when developing orchard management strategies.