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Soilless root substrates (substrates) are commonly used in the production of containerized greenhouse crops. These substrates may be composed of a single material such as rockwool or block-cut peat, but in most cases, they are composites formulated

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popular across the United States ( Goldstein, 2001 ). Several studies have examined the use of YWC as a potential substitute for peat-lite mixes in containerized plant production ( Burger et al., 1997 ; Hartz et al., 1996 ; Ozores-Hampton et al., 1999

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sphagnum peat harvesting ( Barrett et al., 2016 ; Maher et al., 2008 ), in addition to increasing costs to manufacture and transport peat and other substrate components. Substrates containing (by volume) 20% to 40% wood fiber as a substrate amendment or

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mixed, can be used to produce substrates with the appropriate physical, chemical, and biological characteristics to grow different crops under diverse cultural conditions ( Burés, 1997 ). Currently, sphagnum peat provides the base material for the

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Traditionally, greenhouse and nursery operations formulate container substrates primarily from peatmoss (peat), pine bark (PB), perlite, or vermiculite for the production of most all bedding plants and nursery ornamentals ( Nelson, 2012 ). Of these

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castor oil–based biopolyurethane, uncoated paper fiber, rice hull, coconut coir, and peat. z Paclobutrazol treatments and culture. Containers were filled with 590 mL of commercial substrate composed of (by vol) 75% canadian sphagnum ( Spagnum sp.) moss

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Peat has been a major component of substrates for containerized plant production since the 1960s ( Bohlin and Holmberg, 2004 ) due to its high porosity, high water-holding capacity, and relatively high cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The mining and

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the recommended pH range (5.4 to 6.2) for petunia ( Petunia ×hybrida ), with the exception of the peat-lite (control), which was at the upper limit of the recommended pH range. Some authors have reported that no lime addition was needed for 100% wood

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. 1) and on 27 July 2003 (Expt. 2) in polystyrene trays with 176 cells (2.9-cm diameter, 4-cm deep, 26.43-cm 3 volume) and filled with different media: 1) peat (type S, fine texture; Floragard Vertriebs, GmbH, Oldenburg, Germany); 2) vermiculite

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., 2006 ), heat-expanded slate ( Olszewski et al., 2010 ), Pum ( Ntoulas et al., 2012 , 2013b ), and lava ( Nektarios et al., 2003 ; Tsiotsiopoulou et al., 2003 ). Organic substances, such as peat and composts, have also been used, but at a smaller

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