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Osmotic adjustment in three succulent species of Zygophyllaceae Afr. J. Ecol. 46 96 104 Karleskint, J.L. Cooke, J.P. Fitzpatrick, G. Jiang, F. 2011 The impacts of salinity on reuse irrigation Florida Water Resourc. J. 63 4 9 Levitt, J. 1980 Responses of

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. Inhibition of lettuce seed germination under high temperatures was reported by Gray (1975) who found that germination rates substantially decreased over 22 °C. Therefore, growth chambers which allow to adjust the internal temperature to the optimum

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-stressed conditions. Ethephon-treated seedlings of both kentucky bluegrass cultivars showed greater soluble protein content than nontreated plants in response to PEG-induced drought stress ( Fig. 5 ). Plants adapt to drought stress via osmotic adjustment through the

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significant difference in TR and a smaller reduction in g l by high EC treatment in the reproductive growth stage than in the vegetative growth stage might be because of the plant's osmotic adjustment after prolonged exposure to high EC. Osmotic adjustment

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conductance measured using a leaf chamber were not significantly affected by EC treatment or cultivar (data not shown), suggesting that the plants were acclimated to the moderate water stress caused by the HE or MDR treatment. Osmotic adjustment (decreasing ψ

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.7 kg·m −3 to adjust substrate pH to 6.2. Plants were arranged in a complete randomized design with six replications per treatment per species. Fertilizer treatments. The fertilizer solutions were custom-made with (in mg·L −1 ) 8.7 phosphorous, 166

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described in three categories: osmotic effects, specific-ion toxicity effects, and nutrient imbalances ( Bernstein et al., 1972 ; Cassaniti et al., 2012 ; Grattan and Grieve, 1999 ; Grieve et al., 2012 ; Niu and Cabrera, 2010 ). Total salt concentration

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water ( Niu and Cabrera, 2010 ) and CaCl 2 is used to forestall potential calcium deficiencies ( Carter and Grieve, 2006 ). The pH of all solutions was adjusted to 6.5 ± 0.2 using nitric acid. Both control and saline solutions were prepared in 100-L

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a temperature were separated with by LSMEANS procedure in SAS. The resultant probability values were adjusted using a Bonferroni post hoc test, and statistical significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05. In the text and figures, means are reported

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sites across the United States are affected by soil salinity issues. The detrimental effects of salinity on grass growth include osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, imbalances of nutrition, structural disorganization, and excessive energy resulting in

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