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Concern for the environment has focussed attention on the need for environmentally sound, yet economically profitable, farming practices. A hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L. Roth.) organic mulch system for fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production provides environmental benefits by enhancing the soil and reducing the need for fertilizer and herbicide inputs and is more profitable than conventional practices. Tomato field trials over 3 years at the Beltsville (Md.) Agricultural Research Center compared the hairy vetch mulch system with black polyethylene mulch and bare ground (no mulch). Using partial budget analysis in a farm context, the hairy vetch mulch treatment was more profitable in all years under all market and yield adjustment scenarios. The vetch mulch system also was the preferred system for a risk-averse grower, according to a safety-first criterion. The combination of environmental benefits and the economic benefits to the grower make the hairy vetch mulch system an attractive alternative for producing fresh-market tomatoes in the Mid-Atlantic and parts of northeastern United States.

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. 2005 Life cycle assessment of conventional and organic farming in the DOC trial. Researching sustainable systems. Proc. First Scientific Conf. Intl. Soc. Organic Agr. Res. (ISOFAR), Intl. Federation Organic Agr. Movements (IFOAM), Natl. Assn

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feed and organic fertilizer, and they were traded and transported in these cities. Soybean phytophthora root rot also might be spread by inappropriate mechanized farming. For example, renting an untreated crop harvester, which would carry P. sojae

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the global arable land would be salinized ( Shrivastava and Kumar, 2014 ). Inappropriate farming systems contribute to the large-scale development of saline soil and massive loss of arable lands, especially in the arid and semiarid areas ( Cheong and

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-ARS National Plant Germplasm System Malus collection J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 137 333 342 Hansen, A.L. 2010 The organic farming manual. Storey Publ., North Adams, MA Harker, F.R. Gunson, F.A. Jaeger, S.R. 2003 The case for fruit quality: An interpretive

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-based insect pest management in organic farming Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 29 123 133 10.1080/07352681003617483 Shulaev, V. Silverman, P. Raskin, I. 1997 Airborne signalling by methyl salicylate in plant pathogen resistance Nature 385 718 721 10.1038/385718a0

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-based insect pest management in organic farming Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 29 123 133 10.1080/07352681003617483 Trusty, L.J. Lockaby, B.G. Zipperer, W.C. Goertzen, L.R. 2007a Identity of naturalized exotic wisteria ( Fabaceae ) in the south-eastern United States

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of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), and toxicities of manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and Al ( von Uexkull and Mutert, 1995 ). Aluminum species that are present in the environment, such as Al oxides, gibbsite, Al silicates, and organic-Al

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., 2005 ), chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema × grandiflorum ) was 5 μ m , miniature rose ( Rosa × hybrida ) was between 2.4 and 4.7 μ m , and geranium ( Pelargonium × hortorum ) was 8 μ m ( Zheng et al., 2004 ). Because matured organic substrates can bind

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an OD 600 of 1.5 and suspended to a final OD 600 of 0.8 in the infiltration medium (IF4 for ‘Local Pink’ and IF2 for ‘KAIRI2010’) supplemented with 100 μM acetosyringone and either of 0.01% of Tween-20 (Research Organics, Cleveland, OH), Triton

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