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; Zabadal et al., 2007 ). In this situation, vine recovery was accomplished by retraining new shoots for trunk replacement. To restore growth balance, grapevines are managed differently by training multiple shoots (called suckers) from the trunk base on a

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), triple-line source sprinkler system ( Aragues et al., 1992 ), and double-emitter source (DES) system ( De Malach et al., 1996 ), can screen multiple plant species for salinity tolerance at a wide range of salinity levels while reducing labor costs. Hawks

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thought to maintain or improve ornamental and vegetable plant growth and quality and lower aerial heating costs ( Janes and McAvoy, 1983 ; Sachs et al., 1992 ; Shedlosky and White, 1987 ; Trudel and Gosselin, 1982 ). Relative to shoot-zone heating and

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) blackberry plants that develop a flower shoot and fruit within several months. Cuttings would be taken during the dormant season to root, flower, and fruit for an annual high-density (≈75,000 potted plants/acre) production system that should produce ≈5000 lb

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We report the results of serial studies aimed at clarifying several factors affecting organogenesis in rhizome culture of temperate Cymbidium species and their hybrids. The growth patterns and regeneration ability of rhizomes derived from asymbiotic seed or shoot tip culture vary according to media composition, kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators, culture conditions, and species and varieties. N6-benzyladenine was the best cytokinin for inducing shoot formation, for switching rhizome tissues into protocorm-like bodies, and for directly forming multiple shoots from branched rhizomes. Activated charcoal appeared to be necessary for producing healthy plantlets and for stimulating shoot growth at levels of 0.1% to 0.3% but concomitantly decreased rhizome growth. Sucrose at 5% was the most effective concentration for shoot induction from rhizomes. The above results support the conclusion that organogenic pathways between tropical, subtropical, and temperate Cymbidium species may be controlled by the genetic backgrounds of the species or cultivars.

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Bare-root 17.5-inch-tall (44.45-cm) `Sarah's Favorite' crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) liners were grown in #3 [2.75-gal (10.4-L)] black plastic containers and trained to one, three, or five trunks by one of two methods. Half of the plants were established from multiple liners with each trained to form one of the trunks. The others were established by planting a single liner in each container, pruning them back to within 2 inches (5.1 cm) from the substrate surface, and then training elongating buds or adventitious shoots to the desired number of trunks. Once plants reached a marketable size they were transplanted to a landscape for two growing seasons to determine the effects of the treatments on trunk survival or growth uniformity in the landscape. The study was replicated in time with containerized `Basham's Party Pink' crapemyrtle liners, but only grown in the field for 1 year. Growth and quality differences were minimal at the end of nursery production for either clone, thus favoring recommendation of whichever treatment would be most economical to produce the desired growth form. However, in the landscape phase, survival of `Sarah's Favorite' crapemyrtle and growth and uniformity of `Basham's Party Pink' crapemyrtle were greater for several growth measures when multiple trunks were produced by training stems of the same plant as opposed to planting multiple liners. Trunk survival was generally good for three or fewer trunks, but significant losses often occurred when the planting units had five trunks, especially when grown from multiple liners. Growth and survival differences among treatments were more pronounced with increasing trunk number and the longer the planting units were in the field (landscape).

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In five experiments, singlenode cuttings of `Red Cascade' miniature rose (Rosa) were treated with a basal quick-dip (prior to insertion into the rooting substrate) or sprayed to the drip point with a single foliar application (after insertion) of Dip `N Grow [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)], the potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA), or the potassium salt of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (K-NAA); a single foliar spray application of Dip `N Grow with and without Kinetic surfactant; or multiple foliar spray applications of Dip `N Grow. Spray treatments were compared with their respective basal quick-dip controls {4920.4 μm [1000 mg·L-1 (ppm)] IBA + 2685.2 μm (500 mg·L-1) NAA, 4144.2 μm (1000 mg·L-1) K-IBA, or 4458.3 μm (1000 mg·L-1) K-NAA}. Cuttings sprayed with 0 to 246.0 μm (50 mg·L-1) IBA + 134.3 μm (25 mg·L-1) NAA, 0 to 207.2 μm (50 mg·L-1) K-IBA, or 0 to 222.9 μm (50 mg·L-1) K-NAA resulted in rooting percentages, total root length, percent rooted cuttings with shoots, and shoot length similar to or less than control cuttings. Exceptions were cuttings sprayed with 0 to 2.23 μm

(0.5 mg·L-1) K-NAA, which exhibited shoot length greater than the control cuttings. Addition of 1.0 mL·L-1 (1000 ppm) Kinetic organosilicone surfactant to spray treatments resulted in greater total root length and shoot length. Repeated sprays (daily up to seven consecutive days) had no or negative effects on root and shoot development.

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, data for the control treatment (0 PGR) were excluded from analysis because all explants failed to respond. Statistical F tests were evaluated at P ≤ 0.05. Differences among treatments were further analyzed using Duncan's multiple range test. Shoot

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experiment using shoot tips was arranged in a CRD as a single factor experiment. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and when treatments were significant, means were separated at the 5% level using Duncan’s multiple range test (SAS version 9.0; SAS

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), and 4) long shoots (>30 cm) ( Zhang, 1979 ). Number of shoots of different lengths and pistillate inflorescences were counted in Apr. and May 2014, respectively. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests at 5% level

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