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2 Former graduate research assistant. We extend our appreciation to Taiwan Sugar Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan, the Republic of China for providing the orchid plants.

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1 Professor. This research was support in part by a grant from the American Orchid Society and by private donations. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper

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Presently, there are no standards for producing Phalaenopsis Blume (the moth orchids) as a flowering, potted crop. Determining optimal irradiance for in vitro and greenhouse production will help optimize growth and flowering. Four-month-old, aseptically propagated Phalaenopsis Atien Kaala seedlings with 1.0 cm leaf spread were transferred to a sterile agar medium in November 1995. They were placed under 10, 20, 40, or 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) from cool-white fluorescent lamps. In June 1996, plants grown under 40 or 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 in vitro PPF had 38% greater fresh weight (FW), wider leaves, and more roots than those under the two lower PPF levels. Plants from each in vitro PPF were then transplanted and grown ex vitro in a greenhouse (GH) under high, medium, or low PPF, representing 12.0%, 5.4%, or 2.6% of full sunlight, respectively. Full sunlight at this location was 2300 and 1700 μmol·m-2·s-1 in August 1996 and January 1997, respectively. In November 1996 and June 1997, plants that had received 40 μmol·m-2·s-1 in vitro PPF and then grown under the high or medium GH PPF had the greatest FWs. Overall, plants under the high, medium, or low GH PPF had average FWs of 61, 36, or 17 g, respectively, in June 1997. By mid-September 1997, plants had increasingly larger leaves and higher concentrations of malic acid, sucrose, and starch as GH PPF increased. Leaf glucose and fructose concentrations remained constant as GH PPF increased; however, sucrose level doubled and malic acid concentration increased by nearly 50% from the low to high GH PPF. Each doubling in GH PPF more than doubled plant FW. Plants grown under the high, medium, or low GH PPF had 98%, 77%, or 2% flowering, respectively, in Spring 1998. Anthesis occurred 2 weeks earlier under the high GH PPF. Plants grown under the high GH PPF had twice as many flowers and larger flowers than those grown under the medium PPF.

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.cornell.edu/usda/current/FlorCrop/FlorCrop-05-31-2012.pdf > 10.21273/HORTSCI.35.1.60 Wang, Y.T. 2000 Impact of a high phosphorus fertilizer and timing of terminating fertilization on flowering of a hybrid moth orchid HortScience 35 60 62 10.21273/HORTSCI.42.7.1563 Wang, Y.T. 2007 Potassium

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Impact of a high phosphorus fertilizer and timing of terminating fertilization on flowering of a hybrid moth orchid HortScience 35 60 62 10.21273/HORTSCI.42.7.1563 Wang, Y.T. 2007 Potassium concentration affects growth and flowering of Phalaenopsis in a

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timing of termination of fertilization on flowering of a hybrid moth orchid HortScience 35 60 62 Wang, Y.T. 2007 Potassium nutrition affects Phalaenopsis growth and flowering HortScience 42 1563 1567 Wang, Y.T. Gregg, L.L. 1994 Medium and fertilizer

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Thailand Acta Hort. 1078 25 33 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1078.2 Tsai, C.C. Shih, H.C. Wang, H.V. Lin, Y.S. Chang, C.H. Chiang, Y.C. Chou, C.H. 2015 RNA-Seq SSRs of moth orchid and screening for molecular markers across

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) ( Scriber and Dowell, 1991 ; Sword and Dopman, 1999 ). The larvae of the moths Agonopterix pteleae and Agonopterix costimacula feed exclusively on P. trifoliata in Illinois ( Harrison and Berenbaum, 2005 ). The flowers attract a variety of insect

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