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An experiment was initiated to determine the effect of a low N, high P and K fertilizer applied during the flowering season on a hybrid moth orchid (Phalaenopsis TAM Butterfly Blume.). On 1 Sept., plants of flowering size receiving N, P, and K at 100, 44, and 83 mg·L–1, respectively, from a 20N–8.8P–16.6K soluble fertilizer were given N, P, and K, at 30, 398, and 506 mg·L–1 (high P), respectively, at each or every fourth irrigation. Control plants continued to receive the 20N–8.8P–16.6K fertilizer. The high P treatments, regardless of the frequency of application, had no effect on the date of emergence of the flowering stem (spiking), anthesis, or flower size. All plants treated with the high P fertilizer had fewer flowers (15 to 19) than the controls (24 flowers). Continuous application of adequate N appears to be more important than low N and increased P for optimal flowering. In a separate experiment using the same hybrid orchid, terminating fertilization completely on 1 Sept., 29 Sept., or 27 Oct. or when the flowering stems were emerging (1 Oct.) reduced flower count (≤19 vs. 24). Flower longevity was reduced by 12 d when fertilization was terminated on 1 Sept. Flower size was unaffected by any treatment in either experiment. Discontinuing fertilization prior to late November reduced flower count. Withholding fertilization for extended periods resulted in red leaves, loss of the lower leaves, and limited production of new leaves.

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Vegetatively propagated Phalaenopsis Atien Kaala `TSC 22' plants 10 cm in leaf spread were potted in a medium that consisted of either 100% fine grade Douglas fir bark or a mixture of 70% fir bark and 30% sphagnum peat. Plants were fertigated at each irrigation with 10N-13.1P-16.6K (10-30-20), 20N-2.2P-15.8K (20-5-19), 20N-8.6P-16.6K (20-20-20), or a 2N-0.4P-1.7K (2-1-2) liquid fertilizer at a common N rate of 200 mg•L-1. After 1 year in a greenhouse, plants grown in the bark/peat medium produced more leaves and had heavier fresh weights and larger total leaf areas than those in 100% bark. In the bark medium, the 20N-2.2P-15.8K fertilizer resulted in best plants, despite its low P concentration (22 mg•L-1). When grown in bark/peat, the two fertilizers (20N-2.2P-15.8K and 20N-8.6P-16.6K) containing urea as part of their N source (10% and 52%, respectively) resulted in plants with 40% to 50% heavier shoot fresh weight and 40% larger leaf area than the other fertilizers. With any given fertilizer, plants had similar root weights in both media. Media and fertilizers had limited or no effect on the concentrations of minerals in the second mature acropital leaves except P, the concentration of which nearly doubled in leaves of plants grown in 100% bark. Water extracts from the bark/peat medium had lower pH, higher EC, and elevated levels of NH4-N, Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, B, and Al than those from 100% bark. Exacts from the bark medium did not have detectable levels of NO3-N, whereas extracts from the bark/peat medium all had similar levels of NO3-N, regardless of which fertilizer was applied.

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of orchids that are sold each year is increasing. Most commercial orchid sales are Phalaenopsis sp ., also called moth orchids ( Griesbach, 2002 ). The USDA Floriculture Crops Summary reported the wholesale value of potted orchids (including

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Nash, N. 2003 Phalaenopsis primer: A beginner's guide to growing moth orchids Orchids 72 906 913 Pridgeon, A. 2000 The illustrated encyclopedia of orchids Timber Press Portland, OR

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biology of the principal Invertebrate pollinators and some Vertebrate pollinators. The taxonomic presentation enables the reader to seek specific information on bees, flies, or moths and so on. Emphasis is placed on the phylogenetic, ecological, and

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moth orchids as a result of similarity of the flowers to night active moth butterflies ( Nash, 2003 ). They are valued for their attractive cut flowers and potted plants ( Chai et al., 2002 ) and for their long florescence period and large diversity

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vegetative growth and mineral nutrition of a hybrid moth orchid J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127 442 447 Yang, J. Punshon, T. Guerinot, M.L. Hirschi, K.D. 2012 Plant calcium content: Ready to remodel Nutrients 4 1120 1136 Zhang, H. Irving, L.J. McGill, C. Matthew

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Phalaenopsis orchid HortScience 33 247 250 Wang, Y.T. 2000 Impact of a high phosphorus fertilizer and timing of termination of fertilization on flowering of a hybrid moth orchid HortScience 35 60 62 Wang

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Wang, Y.T. 2000 Impact of a high phosphorus fertilizer and timing of termination of fertilization on flowering of a hybrid moth orchid HortScience 35 60 62 Wang, Y.T. Gregg, L.L. 1994 Medium and

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, Y.T. Konow, E.A. 2002 Fertilizer source and medium composition affect vegetative growth and mineral nutrition of a hybrid moth orchid J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127 442 447 Yao, H.Y. 2007 Applying pour-through medium solution testing method on

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