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, pesticide, and fruit thinning applications each year following recommended commercial practices for the region ( Moulton and King, 2003 ; Stebbins, 1992 ). The standard dessert apple cultivar Red Gravenstein was included in the study to provide a comparison

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by field workers using skin redness (foreground color) and background color and firmness as the reference distinctions to determine optimal fruit maturity at harvest ( Crisosto and Valero, 2008 ). Most peach fruit quality research has been focused on

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foliage) and two perpendicular widths of each plant, thereby generating a growth index [height + (width1 + width2)/2]. Mature, red fruit (berries) were removed from plants, counted, and manually depulped with a dehulling trough (Hoffman Manufacturing

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appreciation to the Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission for funds partially supporting this study. Names are necessary to report factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use

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Salvia (Salvia splendens) `Red Vista' or `Purple Vista,' french marigold (Tagetes patula) `Little Hero Orange,' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) `Better Bell,' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) `Accent White,' and wax begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum) `Cocktail Vodka' were grown in 0.95-L (1-qt) containers using a 5 pine bark: 4 sedge peat: 1 sand substrate (Expts. 1 and 2) or Pro Mix BX (Expt. 2 only). They were fertilized weekly with 50 mL (1.7 fl oz) of a solution containing 100, 200, or 300 mg·L-1 (ppm) of nitrogen derived from 15N-6.5P-12.5K (1N-1P2O5-1K2O ratio) or 21N-3P-11.7K (3N-1P2O5-2K2O ratio) uncoated prills used in the manufacture of controlled-release fertilizers. Plants grown with Pro Mix BX were generally larger and produced more flowers or fruit than those grown with the pine bark mix. With few exceptions, plant color, root and shoot dry weights, and number of flowers or fruit were highly correlated with fertilization rate, but not with prill type. There appears to be little reason for using the more expensive 1-1-1 ratio prills, since they generally did not improve plant quality and may increase phosphorous runoff from bedding plant nurseries.

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Green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum `Sunny') fruit were stored at 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 12.5 °C (36.5, 41, 45.5, 50, or 54.5 °F) for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days to determine their sensitivity to chilling injury. In subsequent experiments, fruit were treated with ethylene at 20 °C (68 °F) until the breaker stage was reached, either before or after storage at 12.5 °C for 0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 days, or 2.5 °C for 3, 5, 7, or 9 days. Number of days to reach the breaker stage was used as an indicator of initial maturity. The chilling threshold temperature for green `Sunny' tomatoes was near 7.5 °C, with delayed ripening occurring in fruit stored for ≥5 days. Longer exposure times at chilling temperatures resulted in reduced marketable life, dull color, flaccidity, and delayed, uneven (blotchy) and nonuniform ripening. Chemical composition was generally unaffected by chilling, while loss of firmness as a result of chilling exposure time rather than chilling temperatures per se was observed. Increased storage time at either 2.5 or 12.5 °C accentuated the initial differences in fruit maturity and thus resulted in less uniform ripening, especially for tomatoes stored before ethylene treatment, but the effect was much greater following 2.5 °C storage. Exposure to 2.5 °C for as little as 3 days before ethylene treatment caused blotchy ripening and decay, and reduced the marketable life of tomatoes by half compared to storage at nonchilling temperature. Treatment with ethylene before storage prevented chilling injury for up to 5 days at 2.5 °C and prolonged the marketable life of tomatoes stored at either chilling or nonchilling temperature. Tomatoes became less responsive to poststorage ethylene treatment with increased storage time at either 2.5 or 12.5 °C. More mature tomatoes and those treated with ethylene before 12.5 °C storage lost less weight. Vitamin C content was lower in more mature tomatoes, but ethylene treatment resulted in better maintenance of vitamin C by shortening the time to reach the red stage. No other significant differences in color, firmness or chemical composition at the red stage were found between fruit with different initial maturities or fruit treated with ethylene before or after 2.5 or 12.5 °C storage. Treating green tomatoes with ethylene before storage or transport is preferable to poststorage treatment because of faster and more uniform ripening, and also increased marketable life and reduced risk of injury in the event of exposure to chilling temperatures.

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; Lockshin and Elfving, 1981 ). Effects of N fertilization rate on fruit quality of caneberry crops have varied with little effect in ‘Thornless Evergreen’ ( Nelson and Martin, 1986 ) and ‘Arapaho’ ( Alleyne and Clark, 1997 ) blackberry. In a 5-year study

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Eighty-five cultivars, selections and clones of winegrapes (Vitis) from European breeding and selection programs were evaluated between 1993–95 in a randomized completeblock experiment. These included selections from Alzey, Freiburg, Geilweilerhof, Geisenheim, Weinsberg, and Würzburg (Germany); Hungary; and the former USSR. Vines were grown under an organic management regime that included sodium silicate sprays for powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) control and oil + detergent for insect control but with little to no nitrogen or other nutritional inputs. The Weinsberg cultivars Heroldrebe and Helfensteiner showed promise viticulturally and sensorially as alternatives to `Pinot noir'. Cultivars from Geisenheim (`Gm 7117-10' and `Gm 7117-26') and Würzburg (`Cantaro' and `Fontanara') appeared promising as `Riesling' alternatives; many displayed similar sensory characteristics to `Riesling', along with reasonable viticultural performance. Cultivars selected at Alzey (`Faberrebe'), Freiburg (`Nobling'), and Weinsberg (`Holder') displayed sensory characteristics superior to the standard cultivar Müller-Thurgau, with very intense muscat, pear, fig, and spicy aromas and flavors. Several muscat-flavored Hungarian white wine cultivars appeared to be superior viticulturally and sensorially to the standard `Csabagyongye'; these included `Kozma Palne Muscotaly', `Zefir', and `Zengo'. Miscellaneous red wine cultivars that showed promise included Geilweilerhof cultivar Regent, and Hungarian selections Kozma 55 and Kozma 525. Vine yields decreased substantially in the 3-year evaluation period, primarily due to lack of nitrogen. Many of these cultivars appeared to be highly adaptable to viticultural regions where cold winters and low heat units during fruit maturation presently restrict cultivar choices.

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the best for high harvest efficiency. Before running the V45 harvester, the ground 1.5 ft on either side of the plant row was raked. After the V45 harvester had passed, blue and green/red fruit in the raked area were counted and expressed as weight of

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