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possibility that wavelength selection may also play a significant role in secondary metabolite production ( Lefsrud et al., 2008 ). In a separate study, Li and Kubota (2009) evaluated the impact of light quality on the phytochemical content of baby leaf

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The anthocyanin in `Sensation Red Bartlett' pear skin was characterized and quantified, and the effect of light quality on fruit color development was evaluated. Anthocyanin concentration was related to fruit chromaticity values. Pigments were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). One of two spots detected in the TLC chromatogram did not change color with molybdate sprays, indicating the possible presence of peonidin. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of a major and a minor pigment, which co-eluted with cyanidin 3-galactoside and peonidin 3-galactoside. Monomeric anthocyanins in the pear skin extract were 6.83 mg/100 g of fruit peel. To study light quality, gelatin filters allowing passage of different wavelengths of-light were attached over the exposed side of `Sensation Red Bartlett' pears 1 month before harvest. Chromaticity was recorded before the filters were attached and after their removal at harvest using the Commission Internationale del'Eclairage (L*, a*, and b*) color space coordinates. Following color measurements, anthocyanin was extracted from individual skin disks. Skin beneath all filters yielded less hue than the control. Wavelengths that transmit above 600 nm had the largest effect on chroma, a*, and b* values. Fruit wrapped in aluminum foil to obscure all light had the highest luminosity. Wavelengths from 400 to 500 nm gave darker, less chromatic, and redder pear fruit. All treatments yielded higher anthocyanin content than the control. There was a tendency toward increased anthocyanin content with longer wavelengths. The simple linear regression of the log anthocyanin content on L* value and (a*/b*) provided an R 2 = 0.41.

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Abstract

This study evaluates light quality and photoperiodic effects on vegetative growth on Cucurbita maxima Duch. In a growth chamber with fluorescent and incandescent lighting the quality of light prior to the dark period, rather than photoperiod, significantly affected internode elongation, and end-of-day red (R) and far-red (FR) treatments demonstrated phytochrome involvement. Internode elongation occurred primarily during the dark period. FR treatments at the beginning of the dark period were most promotive, but FR up to 12 hour into a 16 hour dark period promoted internode elongation significantly. Changes in the ratio of R to FR light at sunset are probably not of sufficient duration and intensity to elicit an end-of-day growth response. In the field, changes in light quality at sunset did not alter the growth habit of the bush or bush-vine phenotypes.

Open Access

Abstract

The effect of light quality during seed development and drying on subsequent germination was investigated in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] with ‘Sugar Baby’ and 2 dwarf strains, WB-2 and ‘Sugar Baby’ (dw-2). The light treatments during seed drying, fluorescent (F), incandescent (Inc), red (R), and far-red (FR), did not consistently affect percent germination. Seeds dried under R or F light usually germinated faster than those dried in darkness or under FR light, but the effect was too small to justify application in commercial seed processing. Seeds from fruit covered with black polyethylene during development germinated faster and were less sensitive to light treatments during drying than seeds from uncovered fruit.

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Abstract

In the paper, Influence of Photoperiod and Light Quality on Stolon Formation and Flowering of Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques by R. D. Heins and H. F. Wilkins (J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103(5):687-689. 1978), the authors names were inadvertently omitted from the table of contents.

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The importance of light intensity and spectral quality on fruit color and shelf life of long English cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied in four greenhouse experiments. The intensity of cucumber greenness was measured nondestructively by video imaging, and shelf life was measured by visual observation of incipient yellowing. In the summer, filters were used to cover individual fruit to reduce light intensity reaching the fruit surface. The lower the light intensity incident on a cucumber, the shorter its shelf life. The average shelf life was 8, 5, or 1 days for cucumbers receiving 100%, 66%, or 31% of natural daylight, respectively. The fruit that were covered with a filter transmitting red (R) light were greener (low grey level via video imaging) than those with a far-red (FR) filter. In the fall, fruit receiving spectral R lighting from fluorescence tubes were greener and had a longer shelf life than those receiving FR lighting from incandescent bulbs. In the winter, high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting was necessary to supplement natural daylight for crop growth and production. Under HPS, R and FR lighting produced the same fruit greenness and shelf life. In the spring, R-lighted fruit had longer shelf life than FR-lighted ones, although fruit color at harvest was similar. In these four experiments, postharvest shelf life of long English cucumber was generally related to fruit greenness upon harvest. The data suggest the importance of an open canopy in improving fruit greenness and shelf life of greenhouse-grown cucumbers.

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Abstract

Alstroemeria L. ‘Regina’ plants grown at 22°C did not flower, regardless of photoperiod treatments. If grown at 13°, plants flowered sooner under long photoperiod treatments than under natural days (ND). Incandescent (Inc) or red light treatments applied as a night interruption (NI) promoted earlier flowering than NI-far-red, ND, or short days (SD). Number of flowering shoots was unaffected by light quality. Plants grown under SD treatments produced the fewest flowering shoots. Flower production was related to early commencement and subsequent duration of the flowering span, as all plants ceased flowering on similar dates. When plants were rotated every 20, 30, or 40 days between SD and NI-Inc light treatments, the days to flower were delayed compared to plants grown continuously (nonrotated) under NI-Inc. Nevertheless, plants which were rotated between the various SD and NI-Inc light treatments flowered sooner than plants under continuous SD. Days to flower were reduced when plants were transferred monthly (December to June) from SD to either ND, 20 hr Inc, or 10 or 20 hr of high-intensity discharge (HID) lights. Flowering was hastened by 20 hr of HID lighting when compared to Inc during the months when the natural photoperiod was less than 12 hr, but had no influence when the 20-HID light treatment commenced after the natural photoperiod was greater than 12 hr. Maintaining plants under SD past January delayed the start of flowering, regardless of subsequent light treatments.

Open Access

Abstract

Regardless of season, location, harvest date, or size, ‘Wolcott’ blueberry fruits sorted with transmitted light according to their anthocyanin (ACY) contents were reasonably well separated for quality as expressed by pH, titratable acid (AC), soluble solids (SS) and the SS/AC ratio. Quality of fruits of the same ACY class differed according to cultivar (‘Wolcott’, ‘Berkeley’, and ‘Jersey’). AC content of the fruit decreased slightly during the season regardless of ACY class or cultivar. This consistent reduction in AC as the season progressed was accompanied by increases in the SS/AC ratios and development of decay. Location of harvest (farm to farm) influences SS somewhat. A long harvest interval produced a small but consistent effect on all quality parameters.

Open Access

Abstract

Limbs of ‘Miller Sturdeespur Delicious’ apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) with bearing spurs ranging in age from 2 to 11 years were provided with differing solar exposure levels ranging from 5% to 95% of full sunlight (400 to 700 nm) from 55 days postbloom until harvest. As the exposure level of the limb canopy was reduced, fruit length, width, weight, soluble solids, starch content, and total solids were reduced while fruit firmness and total acidity were increased. Visual fruit red color of this high-coloring strain was not affected. As spur age increased, fruit length, width, weight, and soluble solids decreased while fruit firmness and total acidity increased. Spur age did not influence fruit red color, starch content, or total solids. Light exposure level accounted for a relatively large portion of the variation in fruit size and quality between limbs while spur age accounted for only a small portion of the variation within each limb.

Open Access

Experiments were conducted to evaluate storage temperature, storage irradiance and prestorage foliar sprays of gibberellin, cytokinin or both on postharvest quality of Oriental hybrid lilies (Lilium sp. `Stargazer'). Cold storage of puffy bud stage plants at 4, 7, or 10 °C in dark for 2 weeks induced leaf chlorosis within 4 days in a simulated consumer environment, and resulted in 60% leaf chlorosis and 40% leaf abscission by 20 days. Cold storage also reduced the duration to flower bud opening (days from the end of cold storage till the last flower bud opened), inflorescence and flower longevity, and increased flower bud abortion. Storage at 1 °C resulted in severe leaf injury and 100% bud abortion. Providing light up to 40 μmol·m-2·s-1 during cold storage at 4 °C significantly delayed leaf chlorosis and abscission and increased the duration of flower bud opening, inflorescence and flower longevity, and reduced bud abortion. Application of hormone sprays before cold storage affected leaf and flower quality. ProVide (100 mg·L-1 GA4+7) and Promalin (100 mg·L-1 each GA4+7 and benzyladenine (BA)) effectively prevented leaf chlorosis and abscission at 4 °C while ProGibb (100 mg·L-1 GA3) and ABG-3062 (100 mg·L-1 BA) did not. Accel (10 mg·L-1 GA4+7 and 100 mg·L-1 BA) showed intermediate effects on leaf chlorosis. Flower longevity was increased and bud abortion was prevented by all hormone formulations except ProGibb. The combination of light (40 μmol·m-2·s-1) and Promalin (100 mg·L-1 each GA4+7 and BA) completely prevented cold storage induced leaf chlorosis and abscission.

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