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., 2013 ; Jiao et al., 2007 ). Changes in light quality, intensity, and duration cause responses at anatomical, physiological, and biochemical levels and, thus, influence plant morphology and functioning ( Haliapas et al., 2008 ). The development of LED

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new sustainable alternatives ( Berghage and Heins, 1991 ; Clifford et al., 2004 ; Li et al., 2000 ; Runkle and Heins, 2002 ). Plant height can be affected by the manipulation of light quality, and many successful experiences have been reported in

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% humidity. However, recent research findings could change the conception of the ideal cultivation environment for sprouts. Hong et al. (2008) reported that light has an important influence on the quality of mung bean sprouts. Pérez-Balibrea et al. (2008

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Closed-type plant production systems incur additional costs when using electrical light sources instead of sunlight, which requires an increase in crop yield and quality to obtain economic feasibility for crop cultivation ( Piovene et al., 2015

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apex basipetally transports down the plant stem and accumulates at the base of cuttings to initiate adventitious roots ( Christiaens et al., 2016 ). Perception of light quality by plants can induce changes in gene expression and hormonal regulation

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Johnson, 1988 ). This results in decreased yield. Therefore, raising high-quality seedlings is important for increasing the yield of crops. Plant development and physiology are strongly influenced by the light spectrum, which affects the seedling

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Authors: , , and

-related functions ( Lee et al., 2009 ; Nicolle et al., 2004 ; Park et al., 2008 ; Zao et al., 2004 ). In recent years, it has become one of the main vegetable species grown under soilless facility cultivation. Varying effects of light quality on the biomass

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continue to improve. Another potential advantage of using LEDs is the ability to select light qualities and intensities that have beneficial effects on plant growth and photomorphogenesis ( Goto, 2012 ). The ability to impact growth of microgreens has been

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both allow easier grafting and reduce the risk of scion exposure. Also, the authors are aware that commercial propagators often encounter inconsistencies in seedling morphology, possibly as a result of changes in light quality during twilight hours or

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and are able to produce high yields with uniform quality year round. Recently, intensive research has been performed to elucidate the effect of light intensity and wavelength on plant growth with the use of LEDs, which offer many advantages, including

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