Five selected lines of lentils (Lens esculenta Moench.) were used to determine percentages of natural crossing. First generation seed was classified into S1 and F1 groups after recessive fluorescent yellow cotyledonous maternal flowers were crossed naturally with pollen for dominant red cotyledonous flowers. Natural pollination between lines ranged from 0.01 to 0.08%. No F1 seed was produced on plants inside of wire screened cages although the cages included honeybees, air-borne pollen and maternal and paternal plants having alleles for yellow and red cotyledons, respectively. This indicates that neither honeybees nor air-borne pollen are major factors in natural cross pollinations. Seed yields from caged plants indicate that lentils are highly self-pollinated and need no agent to assist self-pollination.
+ Vaseline )
Identification of initial water entry sites.
Seeds harvested at NCHU with 12% MC were used (Seed Lot 2). Seeds were covered with a layer of Vaseline at the micropyle, lens, or both sites (micropyle + lens) and germinated at 30 °C in a
Numerous shooting and post-production techniques can be used to improve the quality of images used in horticultural publications. Certain lenses, lens attachments, and camera accessories are useful for enabling greater success in photographing plants. Small diffusers and reflectors allow the shooting of close-ups in the field, even when the sun is directly overhead. Shift lenses can be used to photograph trees at a closer distance without the extreme distortion of wide focal length lenses. Stitching of multiple images to produce panoramic shots can produce images with increased resolution, less distortion, and without the need for a wide-angle lens. Experiences with digital asset management management and post-production workflows are also presented.
The correlation between each of the green fruit characters: carpel separation, firmness, and skin toughness with balloon bloating in salt stock was significant. As percentage of carpel separation increased the percentage of balloon bloating increased. As fruit firmness and skin toughness increased the percentage of balloon bloaters decreased. Firmness and skin toughness measurements on green fruit were significantly correlated with the same measurements on brine stock.
There was no significant correlation between lens bloating and any one of the three green fruit characters. The multiple correlation coefficient between carpel separation, fruit firmness, and lens bloating was significant. The regression equation of Ȳ = −1.21A −8.42B + 248.79 is useable in predicting lens bloating where A is percent carpel separation and B is firmness of green fruit. The estimate of lens bloating from use of this equation was just as reliable as the equation using all three green fruit characters.
Harper, 2009 ), especially when viewed through the lens of consumer preference ( Dampier et al., 2015 ). However, there is a dearth of studies comparing economic benefits against the costs of establishment and of insect control required to maintain
, 1990 ). Initially, the injured tissue is firm and moist, but after prolonged storage, they become spongy and dry developing cavities or lens-shaped voids ( Plagge, 1929 ; Snowdon, 1990 ). ‘Empire’ apple develops both internal and external injuries and
The number of seeds/plant, seeds/pod, flowers/peduncle, and peduncles/plant was greater on lentil plants (Lens culinaris Medic.) grown from small seeds than from medium and large seeds. Correlation studies show that seed yields are inversely related to seed size and plant height.
Photographs of five fully foliaged shade tree canopies (Acer. rubrum, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis, Gymnocladus dioicus, Pyrus calleryana, and Zelkova serrata) were taken using four film types, 50- and 28-mm lenses, and a range of three f-stops. Photographs of four leafless shade tree canopies (Gleditsia, Gymnocladus, Pyrus, and Zelkova) were taken using three film types and two lenses, at two f-stops. Film densities were determined with a light source and quantum sensor system for negatives of fully foliaged and leafless canopies and correlated with mean percentage of shade measured with a pyranometer. Pan-X film, at the correct f-stop setting, gave the highest correlation to mean percentage of the fully foliaged canopies. The 50-mm lens gave a higher correlation than the 28-mm lenses. Plus-X film, at an f-stop one above the proper setting, gave the highest correlation to mean percentage of shade of the leafless canopy. Plus-X film produced the most consistent results when photographs of the leafless canopy were taken during different days and times of the day. Using a densitometer to measure film density of the negatives gave high correlations to mean percentage of shade of the leafless canopy.
The Horticulture Program at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station is responsible for the maintenance and distribution of germplasm collections of ten crop genera. These ten genera include over 28,000 accessions of 267 species of germplasm with either food or ornamental potential. The largest collection is beans (Phaseolus, > 11,500 accessions) which includes 32 species. Large collections of the cool season food legumes include Cicer, Pisum and Lens. Smaller legume collections include Lupinus, Lathyrus, Trigonella and Vicia. Although there are fewer than 3300 accessions within these four genera, there are 134 species represented. Although smaller in number of accessions, the Allium and Lactuca collections are extensively utilized for food and ornamental development programs. Associated with the curation and seed maintenance of these crops is a seed-borne virus eradication program, the development of core collections, and expansion of the evaluation data and other documentation into the Germplasm Resources Information Network.