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conditions are favorable for seedling establishment ( Egley, 1989 ). Hardseeds are seeds that develop physical dormancy (PY), that is, a water-impermeable seed or fruit coat, during maturation development and are commonly found in species of Fabaceae ( Baskin

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Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Painter, VA during 2009–11. Table 2. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) concentrations (μg·cm −3 ) under virtually impermeable film (VIF) and totally impermeable film (TIF) mulch at labeled

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's fumigant use regulations, the use of drip irrigation to apply fumigants and the use of specialized tarps such as VIF during fumigation reduce the required buffer zones ( Ajwa et al., 2002 ). VIF differs from a HDPE tarp because VIF has additional gas-impermeable

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Two field trials were conducted in Bradenton, Fla., to determine the effect of reduced methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBr + Pic 67:33 v/v) rates applied under two types of virtually impermeable films (VIF) on nutsedges (Cyperus spp.) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) control, and `Capistrano' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) crop yield. MBr + Pic rates were 0, 88, 175, and 350 lb/acre. Mulch types were low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch, Hytibar VIF, and Bromostop VIF. Results showed that there were no differences on weed and nematode control, and bell pepper fruit yield between the two types of VIF. Two exponential models characterized the nutsedge responses to MBr + Pic rates with LDPE mulch and VIF, with weed densities declining as MBr + Pic rates increased. Reducing MBr + Pic rates by one-half (175 lb/acre) under VIF provided similar nutsedge control as the full-rate (350 lb/acre) with LDPE mulch. Similar results were observed with stunt nematode, where the most effective control occurred with VIF. Bell pepper yield with LDPE mulch responded linearly to increased MBr + Pic rates. However, a logarithmic model described the response of pepper yields to the fumigant rates under VIF. The application rate of this fumigant could be effectively reduced to 25% of the commercial rate (350 lb/acre) under either VIF, without causing significant bell pepper yield losses.

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Extensive winterkill of golf greens is a major problem in northern climates. In this study, the efficiency of several protective covering materials used to shelter Poa annua golf greens from winter damages was evaluated over 2 years. The bioclimatological environment under these protective covers was studied at crown level and at 5, 10, and 20 cm under the ground Treatments (permeable and impermeable covers, curled wood Excelsior mat, straw mulch protected by an impermeable cover, geotextile material with an impermeable cover, and air space under an impermeable cover) were compared to a control treatment without protection. Results indicate that temperature profile was strongly influenced by both winter protection covers and snow depth Temperatures at crown level were stable and just below 0C under plots covered with a significant amount of snow. However, temperatures varied considerably, when snow cover was <15 cm. Snow thermal conductivity was increased by periods of rain during the winter. Impermeable covers minimized the negative effect of this change in the insulation properties of the snow cover by limiting temperature fluctuations at the crown level. Temperature profiles under permeable covers were similar to profiles observed on control plots. Temperature profiles were comparable for 5 and 10 cm air space treatments and were not significantly different when compared to impermeable covers spread directly on the turf. Straw with an impermeable cover and Excelsior mats maintained crown level temperatures at >0C and the incidence of disease was higher under these highly insulative materials.

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northeastern United States to reduce tillage by decreasing weed pressure and maintaining prepared beds before planting. Tarps are reusable sheets of 0.15-mm (5–6 mil) opaque polyethylene impermeable to water and sized to cover multiple crop rows at one time

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perched water table above an impermeable soil layer (hard pan) located at the 90 to 150 cm depth. Ground water is pumped into canals or ditches, then moves horizontally between two adjacent ditches (spaced 25 to 35 m). When the water fronts from two

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Some transplanted crops, like tomato and marigolds, tend to stretch very early after germination, especially if grown in low light environments. By the time growers apply growth regulators (PGRs), the stretching of the hypocotyl has already occurred and sprays are ineffective. Seeds of marigold `Bonanza Gold' and tomato `Sun 6108' were soaked for 6, 16, and 24 h in paclobutrazol solutions of 0, 500, and 1000 ppm. After imbibition, seeds were dried for 24 h before sowing in plugs. Sixteen, 26, and 36 days after sowing, seedling height and percent emergence were measured. Increasing concentrations of PGR and time of imbibition produced shorter seedlings. Tomato seedling heights measured 36 days after sowing were 1.9, 1.5, and 1.7 cm when imbibed in water for 6, 16, and 24 h, respectively. When PGR was used at 500 ppm, seedling heights were: 1.4, 1.2, and 1.2 cm, respectively. Similar reductions were observed for marigolds. It was hypothesized that some seeds have coats that are impermeable to PGRs. These impermeable coats might serve as PGR carriers, delivering the chemical into the growing medium of the plug cell. When the root emerges from the seed, it absorbs the growth regulator. These preliminary results indicate that this method of PGR application may be feasible and could benefit plug growers of marigold and other ornamental plant species prone to early stretching (e.g., cosmos).

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To determine whether the mechanisms of sucrose accumulation into the low acid `Sweet Lime' (Citrus limmetioides Blanco) juice cells are consistent with those previously reported for the more acidic cultivars, we followed similar developmental changes in determinants of sink strength. In addition, we followed the incorporation and distribution of quantum dots and fluorescent endocytic probes into the cell with time of incubation. As in other citrus fruits, sucrose levels, sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose phosphate phosphatase increased throughout fruit development. The pH however, was much higher than in the more acidic cultivars. Sucrose uptake into energized plasmalemma vesicles was inhibited by gramicidin, in accordance with the presence of an active symport mechanism of sucrose from the apoplast into the cytosol. On the contrary, tonoplast vesicles were shown to lack active transport mechanism of sucrose into the vacuole. In conformity with recent findings showing the occurrence of an endocytic mechanism in `Murcott' mandarin, `Sweet Lime' juice cells were shown to incorporate membrane-impermeable dyes into their vacuoles in the presence of sucrose. High-definition confocal microscopy revealed the co-localization of membrane-impermeable markers in cytoplasmic vesicles, in membrane-bound intermediate structures such as the endosome and multi-vesicular body, and the eventual distribution of such fluorescent particles. The data provide strong evidence for an endocytic system of transport that allows direct incorporation of sucrose from the apoplast to the vacuole and for the visualization of intermediate distribution and cargo centers in the cell.

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, and embryo were assessed by immersing intact seeds, hulled seeds, and naked embryos in methylene blue for up to 7 d. Staining was examined daily in longitudinally cut seeds. Seeds of sugar pine were found to have a water-impermeable seedcoat because no

Open Access