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{2C DNA content of sample [pg] = 8.76 pg × [mean DNA fluorescence (MRF) sample/MRF standard]}. Monoploid (1Cx-value; Greilhuber et al., 2005 ) genome sizes were calculated by dividing the holoploid 2C value by the number of chromosome sets. Analysis

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been measured for chromosome number ( Castiglione and Cremonini, 2012 ), and 2.1% have measurements of genome size ( Garcia et al., 2014 ). Holoploid 2C genome sizes of plants span about a 2400-fold range, from 0.13 pg ( Genlisea margaretae Hutch.) to

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genome sizes and ploidy levels of diverse taxa within Cornus , specifically for the BB, CC, and DW clades. Materials and Methods Flow cytometry. Relative 2C genome sizes were determined using flow cytometry ( Greilhuber et al., 2007 ). Plant tissue

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artificially induced autopolyploids. Table 1. Mean 2C genome sizes and ploidy levels of Berberis and Mahonia species, hybrids, and cultivars. Flow cytometry was conducted on tissue (0.5 cm 2 ) taken from recently expanded leaves using a hole

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confirmed pentaploid, was used as a reference to compare the approximate genome sizes (DNA content) for the different ploidy levels. Mean 2C holoploid genome sizes for F. gardenii ranged from 4.2 to 4.5 pg, hybrids ranged from 5.2 to 5.5 pg, and F. major

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( Greilhuber et al., 2005 ). Monoploid genome size (the amount of DNA of one chromosome set, 1 C x value, with chromosome base number x ) and holoploid genome size (the amount of DNA of the whole chromosome complement, 1 C -value, with chromosome number n

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exceeding a minimum of 3000 cells per analysis. Mean fluorescence for each sample was compared with an internal standard of known genome size ( Pisum sativum L. ‘Ctirad’, 2C DNA = 8.76 pg), and holoploid, 2C genome size (i.e., DNA content of entire non

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sample with three samples for each species. Holoploid, 2C genome sizes for each sample were calculated as: 2C = DNA content of standard × (mean fluorescence value of sample ÷ mean fluorescence value of the standard). The relationship between genome sizes

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complement) was analyzed with a Partec PA-II flow cytometer (Partec, Münster, Germany). Holoploid, 2C genome size was calculated as: 2C = genome size of standard × (mean fluorescence value of sample/mean fluorescence value of standard). Evaluating

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using a Partec PA II flow cytometer (Partec, Görlitz, Germany) to determine genome size. Holoploid, somatic, sporophytic, unreduced 2C genome size was calculated as the DNA content of the standard (pg) × (mean fluorescence value of the sample / mean

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