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James C. Sellmer, Kathleen M. Kelley, Susan Barton, and David J. Suchanic

Attendees at the 2001 Philadelphia Flower Show participated in an interactive-quiz-formatted survey on touch-screen computers to determine their knowledge and use of plant health care (PHC) and integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Participants answered 15 questions in three categories: 1) PHC practices (criteria for proper plant selection, correct planting practices, and reasons for mulching and pruning); 2) IPM practices (insect identification, plant and pest monitoring, and maintenance of records on pests found and treatments applied to their landscape plants); and 3) demographic and sociographic questions to aid in characterizing the survey population. Over half of the participants (58%) were interested in gardening and a majority (77%) were interested in protecting the environment. Most participants (66%) were between 36 and 60 years of age with a mean age of 47 years, 76% lived in and owned a single-family home, and greater than half (56%) had never purchased professional landscape services. Most recognized PHC criteria for proper site selection, although not all environmental site characteristics were recognized as being equally important. Nearly half (49%) identified the correct planting practice among the choices offered; while an equal number of participants chose among the several improper practices listed. Although reasons for mulching were properly identified by the respondents, excess mulching around trees was considered a proper planting practice by over 39% of the participants. When questioned about IPM practices, a majority reported that they identify pests prior to treating them (71%) and that they scouted their landscapes (82%). However, only 21% kept records of the pests that they had found and the treatments that they applied for those pests. Participants' responses were further examined using cluster analysis in order to characterize the participants and identify meaningful consumer knowledge segments for targeting future extension programming. Three distinct segments were identified: 1) horticulturally savvy (69% of the participants), 2) part-time gardener (25% of the participants), and 3) horticulturally challenged (6%). At least 47% of the horticulturally savvy and part-time gardeners correctly answered plant health care questions (44% of the total survey participants). These two segments included more individuals who were interested in gardening and protecting the environment and are potential targets for future PHC and IPM extension education programs. In contrast the horticulturally challenged recorded no interest in or opinion on gardening or protecting the environment. It is apparent that a majority of consumers are learning and employing PHC and IPM concepts. Proper site selection, planting practices, and mulching along with record keep- ing and pest identification proficiency remain key educational areas to be developed. Although not all gardeners are well versed in all subject matter, a basic knowledge of PHC and IPM is being demonstrated.

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Erja Rappe, Sirkka-Liisa Kivelä, and Hannu Rita

The restorative effects of nature in enhancing human well-being are well documented. However, the effects of exposure to a green environment on health in institutional settings have not been adequately studied. Our study describes the relationship between the reported frequency of visits to an outdoor green environment and self-rated health, including hindrances experienced during outdoor visits among older people living in a nursing home. Forty-five women assessed their health and answered a questionnaire containing the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) during an interview. A strong positive association was established between the reported frequency of visiting outdoors and self-rated health even when taking into account health-related distresses measured using the NHP (B = 0.235, P < 0.01). The main hindrances related to outdoor visits were lack of assistance and uncomfortable weather conditions. The results suggest that it might be possible to promote the well-being of older individuals living in nursing homes by providing them with opportunities to visit outdoor green environments. By increasing the accessibility and attractiveness of the outdoor environment, the frequency of outdoor visits could increase, resulting in better perceived health. Implementation of environmental interventions that facilitate year-round outdoor visits are recommended.

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Claudia C. Collins and Angela M. O'Callaghan

-term care facilities will increase dramatically. This residential shift requires an examination of the quality of life for the older adults who will reside in those facilities. Mastery and self-rated health (SRH) have been found to be two of the most

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Rosalie J. Kelley, Tina M. Waliczek, and F. Alice Le Duc

public health implications; for example, greater health care utilization and mortality would be especially problematic for this relatively young, working age population ( Falvo et al., 2012 ). Upon return from deployment, veterans often suffer with mental

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Renata Goossen and Kimberly A. Williams

under replicated or controlled conditions. H 2 O 2 is a well-known oxidizing agent often used as a remedy by consumers to treat algae and root decay from presumed root disease on interior plants, as well as to encourage root growth and health

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Candace Bartholomew, Benjamin L. Campbell, and Victoria Wallace

care pesticides were banned from kindergarten to eighth grade public/private schools and day care centers. The only exception is in the case of an imminent threat to human health, whereby pesticides could be applied with the authorization of the

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Ghazal Tarar, Coleman L. Etheredge, Amy McFarland, Amy Snelgrove, Tina M. Waliczek, and Jayne M. Zajicek

Prevention (CDC). Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System is a state-based system of health surveys generating information about health risk behaviors, clinical preventive practices, and health care access and use primarily related to chronic diseases and

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Lyle E. Craker and Zoë Gardner

The passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994 made the use of supplements more acceptable in the U.S., increasing demand for botanicals to use in health care and maintenance. These botanicals, primarily medicinal and aromatic plants, currently represent about 25% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S. Although much of the market for botanicals traditionally has been met through collection of plants in the wild, enhanced cultivation of several species will be essential to bring standardized, quality plant materials into the marketplace.

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Tong Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Qi Qiao, Wei Liu, and Xiaogai Hou

omega-3 fatty acids. As an alternative source of omega-3 fatty acids, P. ostii has different uses in many fields, such as the health care, food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries ( Han et al., 2016 ). Although seed oil of P. ostii has

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Usha R. Palaniswamy

Vegetarianism dates back to a time before recorded history and, as many anthropologists believe, most early humans ate primarily plant foods, being more gatherers than hunters. Human diets may be adopted for a variety of reasons, including political, esthetic, moral, environmental and economic concerns, religious beliefs, and a desire to consume a more healthy diet. A major factor influencing the vegetarianism movement in the present time is primarily associated with better health. Epidemiologic data support the association between high intake of vegetables and fruit and low risk of chronic diseases and provide evidence to the profound and long-term health benefits of a primarily vegetarian diet. Vegetables and fruit are rich sources of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber as well as biologically active nonnutrient compounds that have a complementary and often multiple mechanisms of actions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and hypolipidemic properties, and mechanisms that stimulate the human immune system. Because of the critical link established between diet and health, consumers have begun to view food as a means of self-care for health promotion and disease prevention. Functional foods are targeted to address specific health concerns, such as high cholesterol or high blood sugar levels, to obtain a desired health benefit. Functional properties identified in a number of plant species have led to a modern day renaissance for the vegetarian movement.