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question of whether flower vigor and quality as expressed in differences in flower size and degree of female development influence fruit production in pomegranate. Flower and/or ovary size have been shown to impact final fruit size in a number of crops

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Fruit size is a commercially valuable trait in many horticultural crops, including rabbiteye blueberry. Sensory evaluations indicate a greater preference among consumers for large-sized blueberry fruit ( Donahue et al., 2000 ; Saftner et al., 2008

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analyses, Jim Parrie for his suggestions and discussion, and Suzanne Lang for her assistance in fruit size measurements. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore

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melon fruit ( Kano and Fukuoka, 2006 ), and increased numbers of larger cells in japanese pear ( Pyrus serotina Rehd.) treated with gibberellic acid also showed increased sucrose accumulation ( Kano, 2003 ). In contrast, restricting fruit size by

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Abstract

Three blueberry progenies from crosses of large-fruited X large-fruited parents were significantly larger in fruit size than 3 progenies from crosses of large-fruited X small-fruited parents. Mean fruit sizes of the 3 large-fruited X small-fruited populations were equal to the fruit size of the smaller fruited parents in each cross, indicating that small fruit size is a dominant character. Large fruit size is not linked with low yield.

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Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars were grown in nine Florida environments to evaluate phenotypic stability of marketable fruit yield (t-ha-') and mean fruit size (g/fruit). A stable cultivar excelled for a particular trait when grown in either favorable or unfavorable environments. A stable cultivar for a given trait was defined as one with an individual mean greater than the grand mean (mean of all cultivars) (x > X), a regression coefficient (b1) ≤ 1 (individual genotypic mean regressed against environmental means), nonsignificant deviation mean squares from regression (S2d), coefficient of linear determination (R2) > 0.50, and coefficient of variation (cv) < the pooled cv. `Ssupersweet 860', `Whopper Improved', and `Ranger' were stable for mean marketable fruit weights and fruit size, and `Ssupersweet 860' and `Whopper Improved' were stable for mean fruit size. Bell pepper cultivars were differentiated for phenotypic stability of yield and fruit size or adaptability to diverse environments. Therefore, through stability analyses, bell pepper plant breeders can identify cultivars or select advanced breeding lines that express adaptability for fruit yields or size to diverse environmental conditions or cultural practices.

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Fruit size, number of receptacle cells, and mean cell size were determined throughout development of secondary fruit of three day-neutral strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) cultivars grown in a greenhouse. Cells were counted after enzymatic separation of receptacle tissue, and mean cell volume was estimated from cell count and receptacle tissue volume. Size of mature fruit was small (3.8 g) in `Tillikum', medium (11.5 g) in `Tristar', and large (15.6 g) in `Selva'. Fruit size was correlated with the number of achenes per berry. Mature fruit of `Tillikum' had a lower fruit fresh weight per achene and lower achene population density (achenes per square centimeter) than the larger-fruited cultivars. The average number of cells per mature fruit was 0.72 × 106, 1.96 × 106, and 2.94 × 106 for `Tillikum', `Tristar', and `Selva', respectively. The relative difference among cultivars in the number of receptacle cells was established by the time of anthesis. In all cultivars, cell division was exponential for 10 days following anthesis and ceased by the 15th day. Mean cell volume increased slowly during active cell division, but rose rapidly and linearly for 10 days after cell division halted. Mean cell volume of all cultivars increased > 12-fold after anthesis and was ≈ 6 × 106 μm3 in mature fruit. The genotypic variation in the size of mature fruit was not the result of large differences in either duration of cell division after anthesis or mean cell volume, but rather was primarily due to differences in the number of receptacle cells established by anthesis.

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Abstract

The relative decline in fruit size from primary to secondary to tertiary positions on the inflorescence of large-fruited clones was much greater than for small-fruited clones. Large-fruited clones produced fruit with more achenes and larger achenes than did small-fruited clones. Fruit weight was positively correlated with total achenes per fruit, developed achenes per fruit, mean weight of total and developed achenes, and fruit weight per developed achene. These results lead to the conclusion that fruit size differences among strawberry clones are due to the combined effects of developed achene number, developed achene size, differential activity of achenes in producing growth hormones and differential sensitivity of receptacular tissue in responding to growth hormones.

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Abstract

The dependence of fruit growth of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) upon leaf area was investigated on girdled branches by manipulating leaf and fruit numbers. Leaf areas of 2.0 ± 0.5 m2 per fruit were found to be saturating with regard to fruit growth rate and size. Fruit on internal, shaded branches required larger leaf areas. Fruit on girdled branches weighed 44 to 119% more than fruit in ungirdled branches, which had leaf areas of 0.35 to 0.55 m2 per fruit. This indicates that leaf area is one of the factors limiting fruit growth. Starch accumulated in thin twigs during the fruit growth season, forming a saturation curve similar to those obtained for fruit size when plotted against leaf area per fruit. Increasing leaf area per fruit could involve a decrease in photosynthetic activity, a possibility which now is being investigated further.

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Abstract

A multiple regression analysis of yields of ‘6718 VF’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) from 11 field plots along an ambient ozone gradient in southern California indicated that ozone was responsible for a significant reduction in fruit size. Ozone dose accounted for 85% of the reduction in fruit size and was at least 3.3 times more important than any of the monitored meteorological variables in predicting the percentage of marketable fruit. High ambient ozone depressed production and caused a significant decrease in fruit size over time. A model describing the reduction in marketing container yield (% reduction = 0 + (.0232 x dose)) predicted a 50% reduction at a dose of 2000 pphm-hours > 10 pphm.

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