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Brian A. Kahn and John P. Damicone

repeated as needed to maintain a particle film on the foliage. Surround was mixed at 0.5 lb/gal water (the label-recommended rate) and applied with an agitated, pressurized hand sprayer through a flat fan nozzle tip until the foliage was thoroughly coated

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Bruce W. Wood, Charles C. Reilly, Ted Cottrell, W. Louis Tedders, and Ida Yates

The influence of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] leaflet bronzing, a discoloration of the lower surface, on foliar physiology and nut-meat yield is unknown. Field investigations indicate that bronzing can adversely affect foliage by reducing net photoassimilation (A), stomatal conductance (sgw), and transpiration (E) while also altering stomatal aperture and cellular structure, and increasing temperature. Kernel weight and fill percentage are also reduced. Research indicated that foliar A declined in proportion to degree of bronze coloration, with negative A exhibited by heavily bronzed foliage. A by bronzed foliage did not increase as light levels exceeded ≈250 μmol·m-2·s-1. Within the same compound leaf, nonbronzed leaflets adjacent to bronzed leaflets exhibited greater than normal A. Bronzed leaflets also exhibited lower sgw to water vapor, less transpirational H2O loss, and higher afternoon leaf temperature. Light micrographs of bronzed foliage indicated abnormal epidermal and spongy mesophyll cells. Weight and percentage of kernel comprising the nut declined on shoots supporting foliage bronzing in July to August, but was unaffected when bronzing occurred in September to October. Bronzing of pecan foliage can therefore be of both physiological and economic significance.

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Warren Roberts, J.A. Duthie, J.V. Edelson, and J.W. Shrefler

Watermelon vines and foliage are often damaged or restricted by mechanical operations, diseases, and insects. There is little information to indicate the optimal ratio of plant foliage to fruit. Most watermelon fruits are produced near the plant crown, and thus some farmers believe that extensive foliage is nonessential for fruit production. Experiments have been conducted with watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (cvs. Sangria, Crimson Trio, and Scarlet Trio)] in Oklahoma to determine the relationship between soil surface area covered by foliage (foliar area) and fruit yield. Watermelon plants were planted on 4-m row centers, and were either pruned to allow a foliar area that was 1, 2, 3, or 4 m wide, or were physically confined to the same foliar area by redirecting the branch tips back into the row toward the base of the plant. There was a linear increase in yield as foliar area increased with both `Sangria' and `Scarlet Trio', but not necessarily with `Crimson Trio'. Within a given foliar area, pruning the foliage and confining the foliage to a similar area produced similar effects on fruit yield. A second experiment was conducted to determine the effect on plant yield when the vines were physically moved, as occurred with the confined area treatments. In this study, physically moving the vines did not reduce yield as compared to vines that were not moved.

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Alicia Rihn, Hayk Khachatryan, Benjamin Campbell, Charles Hall, and Bridget Behe

Indoor foliage plant production has been an important industry in Florida since 1912, when Boston ferns ( Nephrolepis exaltata L.) were first mass produced there ( Mitchell, 2008 ; USDA-NASS, 2012 ). In 2009, Florida produced 72% of the United

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Seon-Ok Kim, Yun-Ah Oh, and Sin-Ae Park

results of EEG and subjective evaluations of emotions under green visual stimuli revealed improved concentration and psychological relaxation in elementary school students when they looked at real foliage plants compared with other visual stimuli ( Oh et

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Alicain S. Carlson, John M. Dole, and Brian E. Whipker

) and foliage can lengthen excessively, especially under low light, causing problems during shipping and handling. ‘Leia’ is a hybrid cultivar bred for compactness, multiflowering, and fragrance ( Meshorer, 2013 ). While high light promotes naturally

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Andrew J. Macnish, Ria T. Leonard, and Terril A. Nell

Potted foliage plants are high-value ornamental commodities used to decorate indoor and patio environments. In the United States, the wholesale value of potted foliage plant production was $498 million in 2010 ( USDA, 2011 ). Popular genera include

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Lyn A. Gettys and William T. Haller

; Koschnick et al., 2005a , 2005b ; Mudge et al., 2007 ; Mudge and Haller, 2009 ), but little is known regarding the effects of bispyribac-sodium, quinclorac, topramezone, and trifloxysulfuron on foliage plants. Homeowners living adjacent to canals and

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Eduardo D. Munaiz and Michael J. Havey

, accumulates significantly less epicuticular waxes on its foliage compared with wild-type “waxy” onion, and suffers less damage by onion thrips ( Damon et al., 2014 ; Jones et al., 1934 ; Molenaar, 1984 ; Munaiz et al., 2019 ). The main epicuticular wax on

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Robert H. Stamps, Seenivasan Natarajan, Lawrence R. Parsons, and Jianjun Chen

Foliage plants are extensively used in interior and outdoor landscaping as a result of their diverse forms, attractive colors, and textures. The value of foliage plant production in the United States was $401 million at wholesale in 2009 ( USDA