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  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Powdery mildew is a serious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.) worldwide. Twenty-two melon cultigens have been used to define 22 reported races of the pathogen Podosphaera xanthii (sect. Sphaerotheca) xanthii (Castag.) U. Braun & N. Shish. Comb. nov. [syn. Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht. ex Fr.) Poll.]. Discrepancies in the reactions of eight cultigens to populations of P. xanthii races 1 and 2 in California, Japan, and Spain revealed genetic differences among them that can be used to differentiate P. xanthii race 1 and 2 populations in these countries. Implicit in these results is the existence of previously unknown virulence factors in these populations of P. xanthii races 1 and 2 that permit designation of new races of P. xanthii on melon. Synthesis of these results with previous reports resulted in the identification of 28 putative races of P. xanthii on melon that include eight variants of race 1 and six variants of race 2. Six of the cultigens exhibited resistant blisters in response to heavy infection by P. xanthii in field and greenhouse tests.

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previous work was performed on PI accessions from the U.S. Department of Agriculture germplasm collection, which only contains ≈20 Chinese cultigens. A thorough understanding of the diversity of Chinese ecotypes has not been published. Studying the process

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Belly rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kühn., is a severe disease in many regions that produce cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Annual crop loss to belly rot is commonly 5% to 10%, but losses as high as 80% can occur in individual fields. There are no resistant cultivars, so fungicides are used to provide partial control. Genetic resistance in an acceptable cultivar would be more desirable and economical. Studies were conducted in Summers 1991 and 1992 to screen promising germplasm for belly rot resistance using field and detached-fruit screening methods. In 1991, 105 cultigens (cultivars, breeding lines, and plant introduction accessions) were evaluated for belly rot resistance. The tests were repeated in 1992 with 63 cultigens, including the most resistant cultigens identified in 1991 and appropriate controls. Several cultigens were identified as potential sources of resistance genes. Pickling cucumbers showing resistance included PI 197085, PI 271328, and an F4 selection of PI 197087 × PI 280096. Slicing cucumbers with resistance included `Marketmore 76' and the F1 of Gy 14 × PI 197087. Belly rot resistance was not correlated with other horticultural traits measured, including fruit type, skin type, spine color, and firmness. The resistant cultigens identified should be useful for developing cucumber cultivars with enhanced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani.

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Genetic control of cuticle cracking (CC) in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was studied using half-diallel analyses and reciprocal hybrid comparisons of five parents and reciprocal F1 hybrids over 3 years in Bradenton, Fla. Maternal effects were usually not significant, but in general, CC incidence in hybrids with a resistant cultigen as the female parent was lower than if the resistant cultigen was the male parent. General combining ability (GCA) was significant at all harvests, with specific combining ability (SCA) becoming significant under high environmental stress. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritabilities for CC incidence ranged from 0.45 to 0.69 and 0.62 to 0.89, respectively, increasing directly with environmental stress.

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Salt tolerance of 59 cultigens of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), seven wild Lycopersicon accessions (acc.), and one interspecific hybrid was studied under arid field conditions. Evaluation of salt tolerance was based on relative total dry matter (RD) and relative total yield (RY), calculated as the ratio between performances of salinetreated and control plants. The tomato cultigens were irrigated with water having electrical conductivities (ECi) of 1.5 (control), 5, 10, or 15 dS·m−1. Considerable variation in salt tolerance was found among the cultigens, but at 15 dS·m−1 all showed reduced RD and RY (<0.6). The cultivar M82-1-8 (M82), one accession of L. cheesmanii (Lc), three accessions of L. pennellii (Lpen), three of L. peruvianum (Lper), and an interspecific F1 hybrid (M82 × Lpen acc. LA-716) were examined for RD at three salinity levels, ECi = 1.5, 10, and 20 dS·m−1, in three annual trials. The salt tolerance of Lpen and Lper were higher than those of M82 and Lc; the interspecific F1 was the most tolerant and was usually unaffected by even the highest salinity level. The results of this study indicate the existence of a genetic potential for high salt tolerance in wild Lycopersicon germplasm.

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Plant materials. One hundred and fourteen PIs comprised lines derived from accessions and landraces through inbreeding, open-pollinated lines released by the World Vegetable Center, and commercial hybrid cultivars, collectively referred to as cultigens

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Greenhouse tests were conducted to compare the levels of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] exhibited by recently released Capsicum chinense Jacq. Scotch Bonnet-type germplasm lines PA-353, PA-398, and PA-426 to the levels of resistance exhibited by C. annuum L. `Carolina Cayenne' and `Mississippi Nemaheart'; to determine the inheritance of the resistance in C. chinense germplasm line PA-426; and to determine the genetic relationship between the resistances exhibited by C. chinense germplasm line PA-426 and C. annuum `Carolina Cayenne'. The results of a replicated test indicated that the level of resistances exhibited by the resistant released C. chinense germplasm lines is equal to the level of resistances exhibited by the resistant C. annuum cultivars. Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations of the cross PA-426 × PA-350 (a susceptible Habanero-type C. chinense cultigen) indicated that the resistance in C. chinense is conditioned by a single dominant gene. The results of an allelism test indicated that this dominant gene is allelic to the dominant gene that conditions much of the southern root-knot nematode resistance in the C. annuum `Carolina Cayenne'. The ease and reliability of evaluating plants for resistance to root-knot nematode and the availability of a simply inherited source of outstanding resistance makes breeding for southern root-knot nematode resistance a viable objective in C. chinense breeding programs.

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Greenhouse experiments determined the inheritance of resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1] in Capsicum chinense Jacq. germplasm lines PA-353 and PA-426. Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations of the crosses PA-353 × PA-350 and PA-426 × PA-350 (PA-350 is a susceptible cultigen) indicated that resistance in both C. chinense germplasm lines was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Evaluation of the F1 × resistant parent backcross populations in the cytoplasm of their respective resistant and susceptible parents indicated that the cytoplasm of the resistant parent is not needed for full expression of resistance. Allelism tests indicated that the dominant resistance gene in both PA-353 and PA-426 is allelic to a resistance gene in C. annuum L. `Carolina Cayenne'. However, these allelism tests did not demonstrate conclusively that the M. arenaria race 1 resistance gene in C. chinense is the N gene that conditions resistance to the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] in C. annuum. The ease and reliability of evaluating plants for resistance to root-knot nematodes and the availability of simply inherited sources of resistance makes breeding for peanut root-knot nematode resistance a viable objective in C. chinense breeding programs.

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original plastid type (i.e., the s and t types of M29 and CH, respectively) as examined in re-introgression F 1 progeny restores the chilling response to that equal to parental CH and M29 cultigens. Discussion Abiotic stresses such as chilling

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and form J. Sci. Food Agr. 87 900 907 Kopsell, D.A. Kopsell, D.E. Lefsrud, M.G. Curran-Celentano, J. Dukach, L.E. 2004 Variation in lutein, beta-carotene, and chlorophyll concentrations among Brassica oleracea cultigens and seasons HortScience 39 361

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