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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

precisely controlled and programmed to respond to environmental parameters (e.g., sunlight) in real time ( van Iersel and Gianino, 2017 ; van Iersel et al., 2016 ; Weaver et al., 2019 ). Our adaptive lighting control system measures the PPFD of the

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Michel Carrier, André Gosselin, and Laurent Gauthier

A dynamic management strategy for supplemental lighting in greenhouses was developed. It makes use of a plant growth model and of a rule-based decisionmaking protocol within the framework of a generic greenhouse climate management software system. The model, an adapted version of SUCROS87, tracks plant growth and predicts dry weight production based on measured or estimated values of light intensity, temperature, and CO2 concentration. A set of logical predicates (rules) implements the strategy's behavior. Optimization of lamp use was conducted as a function of economic criteria that enable a comparison between the additional income associated with yield increases due to supplemental lighting and incurred cost increases. Although the model is not perfectly reliable in its predictions, the system can be used to simulate the effect of changes to economic parameters on the decisions of the management strategy. The dynamic strategy described here differs from conventional supplemental lighting scenarios in the sense that it increases the length of the period of supplemental lighting when the daily solar light integral is low, and reduces or eliminates the use of supplemental lighting when the weather forecast predicts that the daily solar light integral will exceed plant requirements.

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Jyotsna Joshi, Geng Zhang, Shanqi Shen, Kanyaratt Supaibulwatana, Chihiro K.A. Watanabe, and Wataru Yamori

cultivation system fitting for plant productions under PFALs, we studied the effects of supplemental upward or downward lighting at the same light intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and plant growth in lettuce and measured the light–response curve of

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Celina Gómez, Robert C. Morrow, C. Michael Bourget, Gioia D. Massa, and Cary A. Mitchell

available light sources, HPS lamps were originally designed for human use. However, HPS lamps have been widely adapted for greenhouse supplemental lighting because they currently are the most economically viable mass-produced light source available that

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Gary W. Stutte

refinements of this 19th century technology for modern residential and commercial lighting applications ( Wheeler, 2008 ). NASA’s funding of research on use of LEDs as a light source for space-based plant growth systems in the late 1980s signaled the beginning

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Cary A. Mitchell

will seedling or graft transplants produced under sole-source, narrow-spectrum LED lighting adapt to subsequent transplantation to the greenhouse or field, where transplants then will encounter broadband solar light? DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR AND

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Geoffrey Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

., 2019 ). Dimmable LED lights can be interfaced with quantum sensors and control systems, allowing for adaptive lighting control ( van Iersel and Gianino, 2017 ). With adaptive lighting, supplemental light is provided so that the PPFD of sunlight and

Open access

Namiko Yamori, Yoriko Matsushima, and Wataru Yamori

:// 10.1111/pce.12594 Zhang, H.H. Yang, Q. Yang, H.J. 2011 Self-adaptive and precise supplementary lighting system for plant with controllable LED intensity (in Chinese text with English summary) J. Trans. CSAE 27 153 158

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Gioia D. Massa and Jeff Norrie

) . From there, as with other innovations, progressive horticulturists adopted, adapted, experimented, and optimized to bring us to our present state. The horticultural community has closely followed the development of lighting technologies for other larger

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Marc W. van Iersel and David Gianino

, Clausen et al. (2015) developed a dynamic control system for supplemental lighting that takes into account real-time electricity pricing, the weather forecast, and photosynthetic responses to light. Part of the rationale behind this dynamic control system