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, Y.J. 2002 The effect of cytokinin on sex conversion of male plants of Vitis amurensis Acta Hort. Sinica 29 163 164 Ainsworth, C. Rahman, A. Parker, J. Edwards, G. 2005 Intersex inflorescences of Rumex acetosa demonstrate that sex determination is

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Vitis amurensis is a member of the family Vitaceae and is found in China, Japan, and Korea ( Venuti et al., 2013 ). Several researchers have reported that it has high disease resistance and freezing tolerance ( Jiao et al., 2015 ; Liu and Li, 2013

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grape industry from a long-term perspective, it is important to breed and introduce grape cultivars that can be cultivated in fallow areas where grapes are not currently grown. Vitis amurensis grows naturally in the mountains of Korea and is known to

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Scanning electron microscopy studies were made on pollen samples from several small fruit crops: 3 selections of blueberry (Vaccinium), 4 Vitis spp. (V. vinifera L., V. cinerea Engelm., V. rupestris Scheele, and V. amurensis Rupr.), 2 cultivars of raspberry (Rubus), 5 cultivars of blackberry (Rubus), and several species and ploidy levels of strawberry (Fragaria) including 54 cultivars of F. × ananassa Duch., as well as pollen of Duchesnea and Potentilla.

Pollen size and exine characteristics were similar for 4 grape species examined. Polyploid blueberry selections were separable from the diploid selection by pollen grain size. Raspberry and blackberry pollen differed in size, exine ridging or reticulation, and presence of borderless or collared pores. Strawberry pollen is characterized by exine ridging and absence of pores. Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa could be categorized into 4 groups according to exine ridge patterns. Cultivars exhibited broad longitudinal ridges or were characterized by less prominant to indistinct ridges. One cultivar was unique in that anastomosing ridges were present between adjacent ridges.

Pollen grains of diploid F. vesca L., F. vesca fma. semperflorens Duch., and F. nubicola Lindl, ex Lacaita; a tetraploid clone of F. vesca; the hexaploid F. moschata Duch.; and octoploid F. × ananassa, F. chiloensis (L.) Duch., and F. virginiana Duch. are broadly elliptical, tricolporate and moderately to prominently ridged. Size of pollen and prominance of exine ridges appeared to correspond with ploidy level. Pollen of F. nipponica Mak. differed in that grains are subprolate to sphaeroidal and exine is ornamented with minute, rounded to subconical verrucae arranged in rows. Pollen of the related genera Duchesnea and Potentilla were very similar morphologically to those of octoploid Fragaria spp., except that pollen of D. indica (Andr.) Focke are larger and the exine of P. recta L. exhibits an extremely minute pore structure.

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University in Shenyang (lat. 41°49′24″N, long. 126°33′41″E), Liaoning Province, China. This included five species under the genus Vitis namely V. vinifera , V. vinifera × V. labrusca , V. vinifera × V. amurensis , V. amurensis , and V. labrusca

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Grapes ( Vitis sp.) are one of the most economically valuable horticultural crops in the world. They are widely used to produce wine, table grapes, raisins, juice, and health care products ( Ren and Wen, 2007 ; Wan et al., 2013 ; Zhou et al

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the roots of Vitis amurensis J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. 2 21 28 IPGRI, UPOV, and OIV 1997 Descriptors for grapevine ( Vitis spp.) International Plant Genetic Institute Rome, Italy Li, Y.-t. Yao, C

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of UV-irradiated berries was close to zero in ripe fruits. In addition, our previous study throughout the entire period of berry development proved that berries at 55 d after anthesis (DAA) of ‘Beihong’ ( V. vinifera × Vitis amurensis ) were most

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10.1111/j.1469-1809.1943.tb02321.x Kovacs, L.G. Byers, P.L. Kaps, M.L. Saenz, J. 2003 Dormancy, cold hardiness, and spring frost hazard in Vitis amurensis hybrids under continental climatic conditions

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.S. Kiselev, K.V. Khristenko, V.S. Aleynova, O.A. 2015 VaCPK20 , a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene of wild grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., mediates cold and drought stress tolerance J. Plant Physiol. 185 1 12 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2015

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