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each patient. This included length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety and fatigue (PPAF), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1 (STAI-Y1), Environmental

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males and scores between 20 and 39 in females), increased from 18 (28.6%) to 23 (36.5%) after intervention. Table 1. Intragroup comparison of the trait anxiety scores of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI ( Spielberger et al., 1983 )] before

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