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, O. Putievsky, E. 2002 Breeding of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum ) resistant to fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilicum J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants 9 45 51 10.1300/J044v09n02_07 Fenneman, D. Sweat, M. Hochmuth, G. Hochmuth, R

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resistance from wild basil ( Ocimum americanum ) to sweet basil ( O. basilicum ) Phytopathology 108 114 123 Cohen, Y. Ben Naim, Y. Falach, L. Rubin, A.E. 2017 Epidemiology of basil downy mildew Phytopathology 107 1149 1160 Cohen, Y. Vaknin, M. Ben-Main, Y

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wild basil ( Ocimum americanum ) to sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum ) Phytopathology 108 114 123 10.1094/PHYTO-06-17-0207-R Blomquist, C.L. Rooney-Latham, S. Nolan, P.A. 2009 First report of downy mildew caused by a Peronospora sp. in San Diego County

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Effect of temperature integration on the growth and volatile oil content of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 80 593 598 10.1080/14620316.2005.11511983 Changa, C.M. Wang, P. Watson, M.E. Hoitink, H.A.J. Michel F.C. Jr 2003 Assessment

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Oecologia 124 476 486 Chang, X. Alderson, P.G. Wright, C.J. 2008 Solar irradiance level alters the growth of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) and its content of volatile oils J. Environ. Expt. Bot. 63 216 223 Currey, C.J. Kopsell, D.A. Mattson, N.S. Craver, J

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Effect of temperature integration on the growth and volatile oil content of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 80 593 598 Cheng, J. Shearin, T.E. Peet, M.M. Willits, D.H. 2004 Utilization of treated swine wastewater for greenhouse

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Intensive, deep-batch, hydroponic systems that use float beds (FBs) are used extensively by the tobacco industry to produce transplants. FBs and a modified FB system with separate drying and flooding stages called ebb-and-flood (EF) beds were used to grow 12 diverse horticultural crops to maturity. Beds were filled with 570 L of water with 114 mg·L−1 N and 143 mg·L−1 K or 66 mg·L−1 N and 83 mg·L−1 K in 1994 and 1995, respectively. The EF beds were flooded for 6 hours, then drained for a 6-hour dry stage each 12 hours in 1994, and flooded for 1 hour and dried for 5 hours each 6-hour period in 1995 from May through August. Although both systems were suitable for producing Chinese water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.—see footnote in Table 1), vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.), zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jacq.), and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), the EF system provided greater control over water availability and higher oxygen concentration in the root zone.

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Fresh-market sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is in high demand from specialty produce markets and commercial restauranteurs. Many consumers are also demanding produce that has been organically grown. Three hydroponic media systems were evaluated twice over two years, rockwool slabs, perlite frames, and commercial sphagnum peat/perlite/compost medium, where the bag was laid flat on the bench. Plants grown in these systems were fertilized with nutrient solutions derived from either organic or conventional, saltbased fertilizer sources. Few differences in yield were detected between basil plants grown in the commercial medium with either fertilizer source. Total yield from plants grown in perlite with the organic fertilizer was 22% greater in the first study and 100% greater in the second study than those for plants grown with the conventional fertilizer. Plants grown in rockwool with the conventional fertilizer were 17% more productive in the first study and 46% more productive in the second study than those grown with the organic fertilizer. Taste test panelists (69%) could discern differences between samples from organically and conventionally grown basil plants, yet no preferences were shown.

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Plantpro 45, an iodine-based compound, was evaluated as a seed treatment for management of fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici on basil (Ocimum basilicum) in greenhouse assays and for effects on growth of the pathogen in vitro. Plantpro 45 at a concentration of 300 mg·L-1 (ppm) prevented fusarium hyphal growth in vitro. Seed treatments of 800 to 1000 mg·L-1 eliminated fungal contamination of seed and increased germination by 27% compared to the nontreated control. Basil transplants grown from seed treated with 400, 800, and 1000 mg·L-1 were significantly taller, weighed more, exhibited larger leaf area, and had reduced wilt severity in the greenhouse compared to the nontreated control. Transplants grown in soil treated with increasing concentrations of Plantro 45 had correspondingly decreased wilt severity, regardless of whether or not the seeds had been previously treated with Plantpro 45. Further research and optimization of soil and foliar applications in combination with seed treatments are needed to provide a complete program for management of fusarium wilt of basil.

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A foam mulch system was developed that can be applied as an aqueous mixture of cotton and cellulose fibers, gums, starches, surfactants and saponins and dries to an one inch thick mat. This mulch may overcome the difficulty in applying and lack of persistence with natural mulches. Foam mulch also has the advantage of being able to be incorporated into the soil without requiring disposal like some plastic mulches. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of foam mulch and its color on weed control within the crop row and on yields of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The foam mulch maintained its integrity for the entire growing season and provided weed control within the crop row comparable to black plastic mulch. The only weeds that emerged in the crop row were through holes in either the black or foam mulch. Foam mulch color did not affect weed control because regardless of color it did not allow light penetration andserved as a physical barrier impeding weed emergence. Basil shoot biomass was not affected by mulch treatment. Mulch color affected early, ripe fruit, and total yield of tomato. Tomato yields in the blue foam were greater than other treatments. Yields in the black foam mulch were similar to those in black plastic mulch. Further research is needed to characterize the effects of foam mulch on crop microenvironment. Currently foam mulch is being commercialized for use in the home landscape and other highvalue situations.

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