The discovery of auxins provided the basis for current chemical fruit thinning of apples. The promotion of postbloom fruit abscission was first reported over 60 years ago ( Davidson et al., 1945 ), and since then, synthetic auxins, NAA and its
-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) has been successfully used to control basal sprouts in several crops ( Boswell and McCarty, 1974 ; Eynard et al., 1986 ; Holt and Chism, 1988 ; Stover et al., 2006 ) and has shown some success in sucker control in hazelnut in Europe
synthetic auxins reduced preharvest fruit drop of apples ( Gardner et al., 1940 ; Marini et al., 1993 ) and oranges ( Gardner et al., 1950 ; Zur and Goren, 1977 ). One application of naphthalene acidic acid (NAA) may delay apple fruit drop for ≈10 to 14 d
, color, and cro p value by as much as 20% while maintaining fruit quality ( Byers and Eno, 2002 ). Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis are two compounds that
Leaves of ‘Mountain Snow’ chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.), sprayed with 10 mm NAA or 10 mm NAAEE, exhibited severe epinasty after 24 hr, while leaves sprayed with 5 mm ethephon did not. Treatment with 100 μm AOA 24 hr before application reduced ethylene production rate of leaves, but not epinasty. Localized application of NAA to adaxial, abaxial, or both leaf surfaces resulted in similar amounts of leaf epinasty. Epinastic leaves had enlarged adaxial epidermal cells. Size of abaxial epidermal cells was unchanged. This study provides evidence that leaf epinasty of chrysanthemum following NAA application is not the result of auxin-induced ethylene production. Chemical names used: (aminooxy)acetic acid (AOA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid ethyl ester (NAAEE); and (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).
(NAA) combined with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) ( Tokuhara and Mii, 1993 ), thidiazuron (TDZ) ( Ernst, 1994 ), and zeatin ( Park et al., 2003 ). Most of the studies performed to date involve the production of shoots through the formation of protocorm
tips of strawberry cv. Camarosa was investigated. Two types of auxins, IBA and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), in different concentrations, were assessed for root induction. ‘Camarosa’ strawberry is a cultivar that is popularly grown in Cameron Highlands
NAA at 0.25% to 1.0% applied in late May on the basal portion of thornless blackberry (Rubus, subgenus Eubatus) primocanes inhibited lateral shoot growth in the treated area and reduced the number of primocanes. However, regrowth occurred near or below ground from axillary buds not contacted by NAA. Rates of (0.25% and 0.12570 NAA did not affect the terminal or lateral growth above the treated area. The reduced number of basal lateral shoots facilitated machine harvesting. Chemical name used: napthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
Experiments were carried out in the southeastern United States between 1998 and 2006 to evaluate the potential for applications of NAA, Ethrel, or both, in the on-year of a biennial bearing cycle to increase return bloom in apple. Four bi-weekly applications of 5 ppm NAA beginning in mid June (summer NAA) increased return bloom, measured as the percentage of floral spurs in the year after treatment. The level of return bloom on trees receiving a summer NAA program was more than 2-fold higher than on untreated control trees, averaged across seven different experiments. Four applications of 5 ppm NAA at weekly intervals leading up to harvest (August/September) increased return bloom also. Combining 150 ppm Ethrel with summer NAA sprays resulted in an additive effect on return bloom compared to NAA or Ethrel alone. The effect of flower cluster density on return bloom the following year was more negative on control trees than it was on trees sprayed with Ethrel in the previous year. Treatment effects on fruit maturity at harvest were generally neutral, although flesh firmness was reduced in some experiments. NAA or Ethrel sprays in the on-year of a biennial bearing cycle may provide a strategy for achieving more consistent flowering and cropping in apple.
Post-bloom fruit thinning of spur-type `Delicious' with NAA may occasionally result in excessive small fruit (50 - 67 mm) not correlated with crop load. We evaluated the effect of carrier volume and time of application on incidence of small fruit over three growing seasons. A constant dose of NAA (30 g·ha-1) was applied in 230 to 2100 liter·ha-1 at about 10 mm king fruit diameter (KFD). Amount of NAA-induced small fruit differed from year to year, but there was no significant effect of carrier volume in any given year. NAA (15 mg·liter-1) was applied as a dilute spray at 5 to 22 mm KFD. Time of application influenced fruit size distribution at harvest in only one of three years. The incidence of small fruit appeared more closely related to temperature during spray application than to carrier volume or time of application. The effect of NAA on growth rate of king fruit with minimal competition (branches hand thinned, no lateral fruit) was determined over the first month after thinning. There was no pronounced effect of NAA on post-treatment growth rate. In a related study, NAA caused a significant decrease in fruit size when two or more fruit were competing on the same spur, while fruit size in the absence of intra-spur competition was not significantly reduced.