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Alexander G. Litvin, Marc W. van Iersel, and Anish Malladi

and held until further analysis. Identification of gibberellin metabolism and cell expansion-related genes. Tomato genes potentially associated with the regulation of later stages of GA metabolism ( GA20ox , GA3ox , and GA2ox ), GA signaling ( DELLA

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Kai Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Ma, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Hongyan Dai, and Zhihong Zhang

stages of GA biosynthesis require the action of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, including the GA20-ox that catalyzes the penultimate step in the formation of bioactive GA, and has been shown to be an important regulator in GA biosynthesis pathway

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Nobutaka Shiraiwa, Kaori Kikuchi, Ichiro Honda, Masayoshi Shigyo, Hiroko Yamazaki, Daisuke Tanaka, Kenji Tanabe, and Akihiro Itai

sheaths and leaf blades, the GA 9 content was higher than GA 20 ; that of GA 4 was higher than GA 1 and GA 3 ( Fig. 3 ). Content of GA 9 and GA 4 in the leaf sheaths was higher than in the leaf blades. Expression of AfGA3ox1 was high in leaf

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown, and Peter J. Davies

vivo is still lacking. Table 1. Gibberellins (GAs) previously identified in apple. Genes regulating key steps in GA synthesis have also been investigated in apple and are shown to be tissue-specific. In ‘Fuji’ apple, MdGA20ox1 [GA-20oxidase (catalyzes

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Jennifer Han, Jan E. Murray, Qingyi Yu, Paul H. Moore, and Ray Ming

(GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox). Arabidopsis has almost twice the number of enzymes for each family compared with papaya. GA20ox and GA3ox are involved in forming bioactive GAs, whereas GA2ox functions to deactivate bioactive

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Aneta K. Studzinska, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, David Shetlar, Robert Harriman, and T. Karl Danneberger

conversion of GA20 to GA1 × 3-β-hydroxylase, reducing leaf cell elongation ( Adams et al., 1992 ) but not cell division ( Ervin and Koski, 2001 ). However, to ensure consistent and lasting effects, frequent applications of TE are required. In plants

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

effect on the expression of KO ( Fig. 5A ). The transcription levels of KAO , KS, and GA20ox genes, all of which are also related to GA biosynthesis, were upregulated in the plants treated with GA 3 but were downregulated in the plants treated

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Po-Hung Wu and Doris C.N. Chang

of GA 3 into phalaenopsis plants that had already developed 3- to 5-cm-long floral spikes initialed at a cooler temperature resulted in flowering at high temperature (30 °C). At lower temperatures (25/20 °C), treating phalaenopsis with GA 3 resulted

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Irfan Ali Sabir, Xunju Liu, Songtao Jiu, Matthew Whiting, and Caixi Zhang

constant level (GA homeostasis). GA homeostasis can be established in plant tissues by suppressing GA biosynthesis and promoting GA catabolism. Reduced expression of the GA biosynthetic genes GA20ox and GA3ox is considered to facilitate biosynthesis

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Hisayo Yamane, Yukinobu Kashiwa, Tomomi Ooka, Ryutaro Tao, and Keizo Yonemori

endodormant buds include gibberellin 2 oxidase (GA2ox; Table 1 ). Several reports have suggested critical roles of gibberellins (GAs), which promote progression from dormancy release, in acting downstream of environmental signals to regulate bud dormancy