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.G. Rodriguez-de la O, J.L. Trejo-Calzada, R. Valdez-Cepeda, D. Borja-de la Rosa, A. 2013 Morphogenic response in the in vitro propagation of pecan ( Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh] K. Koch) Revsta Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente 19 469 481

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837 839 Wood, B.W. 1986 Influence of paclobutrazol (PP-333), Flurprimidol (EL-500) and Ortho XE-1019 (Chevron) growth retardants on growth and selected chemical and yield characteristics of Carya illinoinensis Acta Hort. 179 287 288 Wood, B.W. 1987

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transplanting and so trees are often pruned at planting. Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) is a multipurpose tree that can be grown at a commercial scale for timber or nuts or as ornamental trees. One unknown is how much pruning at planting is necessary for proper

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Optimization of mineral nutrient element management is an important aspect of successful management of commercial pecan [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch] orchards. Annual foliar analysis is an important practice facilitating this endeavor

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Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant capacity of different pecan [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars Food Chem. 102 1241 1249 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.024 Wood, B.W. 1990 Alternate bearing of pecan 180 190 Wood B.W. Payne J.A. Pecan

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Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) leaf elemental concentrations are the industry standard to guide fertility programs. To provide meaningful information, a standard index tissue collected at a specific development stage is required along with established elemental sufficiency ranges. We report pecan leaf elemental sufficiency ranges used in Oklahoma that were developed based on research in Oklahoma and elsewhere. In addition, fertilizer recommendations, based on various leaf elemental concentrations, are included.

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Almost 58,000 acres of pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] are planted in the western United States, which includes western Texas and southern areas of New Mexico, Arizona, and California. `Western Schley' is the main cultivar planted, with `Wichita' trees used as pollenizers. All orchards are flood-irrigated and almost no diseases are present. The pecan aphid complex is the predominant insect problem; however, orchard crowding is becoming a problem, and growers are thinning orchards and transplanting trees to new sites.

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Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch)] soils in the arid western United States are characteristically high in pH, calcareous, and often saline or sodic. Economic production, when trees are grown in such soils, requires that growers pay particular attention to managing soil chemistry to avoid nutrient deficiencies, toxicities, or water deficits due to soil structural deterioration. Soil-applied acidulents, calcium-containing compounds, and water management are used by growers to manage high pH problems, sodic soil conditions, and salinity.

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Pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C.) Koch] were harvested weekly for 9 and 7 weeks until normal harvest time during 1986 and 1987, respectively. Kernels were tested for chemical, physical, and sensory properties. Moisture decreased from 13% at initial harvest time to 4% to 6% by normal harvest. Free fatty acids decreased from 0.5% to 0.2% by the third week before normal harvest. Tannins fluctuated, but averaged about 0.8%. Hue angle remained constant from the fourth week to normal harvest. Shear force increased from 90 to 135 N by the second week before normal harvest. Pecans can be harvested about 2 weeks before normal harvest without significant quality deficiencies.

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Pecans [Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. K. (Koch)], grown in western Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, are usually planted at a spacing of 9.1 × 9.1 m (30 × 30 ft). At this spacing, orchards begin to crowd in about 20 years. This crowding results in reduced yields and nut quality, Strategically removing trees over a period of years is the best alternative to avoid tree-crowding problems. Establishing a new orchard with transplanted mature trees can show a profit 3 years earlier than if using nursery-produced trees.

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