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critically endangered round island bottle palm, Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (Arecaceae): Can cultivated stocks supplement a residual wild population? Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 167 301 310 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01175.x Broschat, T.K. Donselman, H. 1986 Factors

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With over 2000 species, the palm family (Arecaceae) is diverse ( Uhl and Dransfield, 1987 ). This diversity is manifest in numerous growth forms, textures, colors, and cultivation requirements. Palms are used in various interior and exterior

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An emerging niche in landscape design is the creation of exotic venues in commercial and residential settings using unusual plant materials. For instance, the creation of a tropical looking pool area at a hotel, a southwestern desert look for a Mexican restaurant or an oasis for the consumer at a shopping venue can all be in part achieved by the addition of specific plants. Palms (Arecaceae) can be an important component of this effort, even in temperate landscapes. This article focuses on issues related to the incorporation of palms in temperate landscapes. Although palms are signature plants of tropical regions, a surprising number of species can be grown in U.S. Department of Agriculture cold hardiness zones 8, 7, or colder via a combination of appropriate genotype selection, attention to microclimates in design specifications, and/or special cultural practices to mitigate the impact of cold temperatures. Cold-tolerant palms can be a critical design element, especially when paired with other lush tropical-appearing plants, to achieve the goal of creating the illusion of an exotic tropical locale in temperate-climate landscapes. Genotypic and site specification, careful attention to establishment requirements, and modified maintenance practices are critical determinants for success that will be addressed.

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Comprising a natural and distinctive group, palms (Arecaceae) differ from other woody plants in their structure and growth features that require or offer unique and sometimes advantageous landscape management opportunities. Although palms are a mostly tropical group that lacks dormancy and cold tolerance, there are numerous species possessing sufficient cool or cold hardiness to be suitable for landscaping in subtropical and even some temperate areas. The habit of palms is largely dependent on the number of stems and the length to which they elongate. There are solitary or multistemmed palms and tree or shrub palms. Regardless of habit, there is typically only one growing point or apical meristem per palm stem. Thus, multistemmed palms may be especially versatile landscape subjects because in many instances, one is able to control height and density by judicious removal of stems. The uniquely constructed palm stem, with growth restricted to its extremities (leaves and inflorescences distally, roots proximally, and wholly the product of primary growth), is composed largely of numerous, dispersed, hard, fibrous-sheathed, vascular bundles embedded in a matrix of water- and carbohydrate-storing parenchyma cells. Often likened to a steel-reinforced concrete column and offering tremendous strength and resiliency, palm stems lack a peripheral vascular cambium and, thus, capability for secondary growth, meaning they do not thicken much once they elongate vertically and there is no ability to repair damaged tissue. Thus, care should be taken when performing horticultural tasks to avoid making wounds (which are permanent, unsightly, and potential entry sites for pests and diseases) and damaging the sole apical meristem. A palm's total photosynthetic and reproductive efforts are concentrated into relatively few but large organs (leaves and inflorescences respectively), offering a unique opportunity to capture an entire year's worth of potential leaf, flower, and fruit litter before it falls into the landscape. The palm root system is adventitious and composed of numerous, small- to medium-sized, nonwoody roots. All primary roots are of a more or less constant diameter and arise independently from an area at or near the base of the stem called the root initiation zone. Because of these root system characteristics and the ability of their trunks to store water and carbohydrates, palms are relatively easy to transplant—even large specimens with small root balls—resulting in instant, mature landscapes.

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Successful reestablishment of transplanted palms [members of the Arecaceae (Palmae)] depends on rapid regeneration of roots, avoiding injury and desiccation of the trees during transit and handling, and maintaining sufficient soil moisture around the root balls after transplanting. Since landscape contractors and nurserymen spend considerable resources and labor transplanting specimen palms, understanding the seasonality of palm root growth, how palm roots respond when trees are dug, and the effects of canopy manipulation during transplanting will enable them to adopt effective and rational transplanting practices. This manuscript provides a review of research findings that can be applied to maximize reestablishment of transplanted specimen palms.

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found trees, palms (Arecaceae), woody ornamentals, groundcovers, and bedding plants who are only selling locally have been hard hit. Their containerized plants have become overgrown and cannot be sold even at “fire sale” prices. Some failing nurseries

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the southern Atlantic coastal plain, nutrient deficiencies are common and corrective or prophylactic fertilization may be needed ( Gilman, 1987 ; Gilman et al., 2000 ). Palms (Arecaceae) in particular, which have high potassium, magnesium, and

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-of-paradise ( Strelitzia reginae ), oleander ( Nerium oleander ), coconut ( Cocos nucifera ), and other assorted palm (Arecaceae) trees ( Figs. 1 and 2 ). The Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) project on African ornamentals was marginally helpful ( PROTA

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the imported plant species most commonly shipped to Canada, followed by six nurseries for croton ( Croton sp.), five nurseries for palms (family Arecaceae), and four nurseries for sansevieria ( Sansevieria sp.). Bromeliads (family Bromeliaceae

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studies bear little relevance to landscape application. Most landscape fertility studies have focused on nutrient requirements of woody species ( Gilman and Yeager, 1990 ; Gilman et al., 2000 ; Torres, 1987 ) or palms [Arecaceae ( Broschat, 2001 )]. Few

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