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of P-Ca sprays for reducing shoot growth or gibberellin sprays for reducing fruit russet or cracking may be reduced if both materials are applied (Apogee; BASF Corp., Research Triangle Park, N.C.). Miller (1998) reported that concentrations of P

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Excessive tree vigor is a significant production problem for the PA apple industry. A series of experiments were conducted from 1994 to 1999, which indicated that Apogee® could effectively reduce vegetative shoot growth. Results from 1994 to 1996 have previously been reported (HortScience 31:598, 32:558). In 1997, 16 treatments composed of four rates (0, 63, 125, and 250 ppm) and four timings (22 May; 4, 11, and 24 June) in various combinations, were applied as dilute handgun sprays. These treatments were applied to sixth leaf `York Imperial' apple trees. Ten peripheral shoots, at a height of 2 m, were tagged and measured on 21 May, 9 and 30 June, 16 July, 12 Aug., and on 10 Oct. Shoots treated with 63, 125, or 250 ppm on 22 May followed by 0, 63, or 125 ppm on 4, 11, or 24 June were from 65% to 76% of the length of the controls (25.5 cm). Treated shoots were from 69% to 78% of the length of the controls following sprays with 63 ppm on 22 May followed by 0, 63, or 125 ppm on 4, 11, or 24 June. Shoots treated with 125 ppm on 22 May followed by 0 or 63 ppm on 4, 11, or 24 June were from 69% to 73% of the length of the controls. The later applications (11 and 24 June) of 250 ppm gave no growth control but the 22 May treatment gave a 30% reduction in growth. In 1999, dilute handgun sprays of 125, 125, 83, and 83 ppm were made on 22 May and on 4, 11, and 24 June, respectively. Cultivars treated were `Spartan', `Delicious', `York Imperial', `Gala', and `Mutsu'. The length of 10 peripheral shoots at 2 and 3 m were measured on 28 July and on 12 Aug. All cultivars responded and on 12 Aug. treated terminal shoot lengths ranged from 33% to 55% of the controls. With reduced vegetative tree vigor many horticultural factors will be improved. In addition, the severity of shoot fire blight can be reduced and the control of all pests that prosper on young succulent leaves will be easier, especially apple aphids and obliquebanded leafrollers. Major factors to be considered in developing an efficacious Apogee® program appear to be initial tree vigor, length of growing season, and crop load. An initial application at 1 to 3 inches of terminal growth is probably the most critical factor.

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This study examines the effect of multiple spray applications of Apogee on shoot growth and whole-canopy photosynthesis (WCPn) rate in young, bearing apple trees. Apogee increased fruit numbers and reduced shoot growth and inconsistently reduced leaf area but the reduction in photosynthetic area did not result in reduced WCPn or a detrimental effect on the fruit number:fruit size relationship. Since WCPn was not affected when leaf area was reduced by Apogee treatment, it suggests a greater photosynthetic efficiency of leaves on Apogee treated trees due to reduced shading. The use of Apogee for canopy management may produce a side-effect of increasing fruit set, which may be managed through a crop thinning program.

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Apogee at rates of 125 and 250 ppm applied at 2-cm average shoot growth and a split application of 125 ppm applied at 2-cm shoot growth and 2 weeks later reduced vegetative growth of `Pink Lady', `Gala', and `Fuji' in 1997 and 1998. Cultivar response varied with rate and year. Fruit size was significantly increased in `Gala' at the low rate and split low rate applications and in `Fuji' at the low and high rate single application in 1998. There was no effect on return bloom or fruit color.

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Prohexadione-Ca (Apogee®) was tested as a growth retardant and fire-blight control agent in the pear (Pyrus communis L. cv. Abbé Fétel) on both bearing trees in the orchard and on 1-year-old scions under greenhouse conditions. Four sprays of 50 and 100 mg·L-1 of the chemical were applied to trees in the orchard at 2-week intervals starting at petal fall, when terminal growth was 4 cm (mid-April). Scions received a single application (250 mg·L-1) and were transferred 2 weeks later to a greenhouse where the shoots were inoculated with a local, virulent strain of Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. In the orchard, the higher prohexadione-Ca concentration was more effective in reducing shoot growth, enhancing fruit weight and controlling fire blight incidence and severity. Similar effects on growth parameters and disease progression were observed under greenhouse conditions. Chemical name used: calcium 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-3-cyclohexene carboxylate (prohexadione-Ca)

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Prohexadione calcium applied as a series of three applications starting soon after petal fall to `Fuji'/M.9 apple trees reduced the number of pruning cuts, pruning time, pruning weight per tree, current season's shoot length, individual shoot weights, and increased number of nodes on the lower 40 cm of shoots. Fruit diameter, soluble solids, starch, or individual fruit weights were not affected by Apogee sprays. Fruit color and firmness were slightly increased in only one experiment. Growth suppression appeared to be greater on trees cropping more heavily. When trees were more heavily thinned, less shoot growth control was achieved. Apogee applied at 250 mg/L in three applications caused a significant increase in fruit set when compared to the control. Alone Vydate, Carbaryl+Oil, or Carbary+Accel+Oil caused fruit thinning, but neither ethephon nor shading 3 days caused significant thinning. Apogee did not influence results of chemical thinners when applied between the first and second Apogee applications. The 10% and the 27.5% Apogee formulations gave similar shoot growth inhibition when applied with Regulaid or Oil+Silwet L-77. When using hard water (well water), the 27.5% Apogee formulation was not as effective as the 10% formulation. The 10% Apogee formulation has more NH4SO4 than the 27.5% formulation w/w; NH4SO4 is used to prevent inactivation of Apogee by calcium and other cations when hard water is used for spraying. The addition of CaCl (frequently used to reduce bitter pit and corkspot disorders) to the 27.5% Apogee formulation caused poorer growth control than with hard water alone. When Apogee was used at 125 mg/L, the addition of NH4SO4 restored the effectiveness of the hard water+CaCl mixture. Alone the additives NH4SO4, Ca Cl, Regulaid, and/or Oil plus L-77, had no effect on tree growth. Apogee plus L-77+Oil provided additional growth suppression when compared to Apogee+Regulaid. In 1998, three applications of Apogee (63 mg/L) or ethephon (135 mg/L) did not affected shoot growth of `Fuji'/M.9 trees at these low rates. Combinations of Apogee and ethephon gave good control of tree growth. Flowering and fruit set were not promoted by any of these applications.

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been no reports to document effects of ProCa made on the same trees for more than 1 year. The ProCa (Apogee) label ( BASF Corporation, 2007 ) provides information on how to calculate the amount of ProCa to apply to a block of trees based on a volume

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-Ca results from one cultivar to another. In the United States, P-Ca (trade-name Apogee ® ; BASF Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC) was initially labeled for use with pear, but substantial reductions in return bloom of ‘Bosc’ ( Sugar et al., 2004 ) and reduced

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Glenn, D.M. Miller, S.S. 2005 Effect of Apogee on growth and whole-canopy photosynthesis in spur ‘Delicious’ apples trees HortScience 40 397 400 Greene, D.W. 1999 Tree growth management and fruit quality

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The efficacy of Prohexadione-Ca on vegetative and reproductive parameters was tested for 3 years on three apple cultivars (Golden Delicious, Braeburn, and Fuji) at concentrations ranging from 125 up to 350 ppm. The Prohexadione-ca was applied after shoots reached 5 cm length, for 1 month. In all cases, Prohexadione-Ca reduced shoot growth, showed the tendency to increase fruit size and to enhance return bloom. In addition, it increased leaf coloration and higher chlorophyll content, and it induced higher photosynthetic efficiency than the control. The relationships among shoot reduction, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency are discussed.

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