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  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Beta-chloroethyl-methyl-bis-benzyloxy-silane (CGA 15281) was applied to 6 Eastern U.S. grown peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars. Thinning response varied considerably with cultivar, timing, concentration and year. Unpredictable and commercially unacceptable leaf abscission occurred with most cultivars during the three-year period. Adequate thinning was achieved without excessive leaf abscission (10% or less) with only one treatment on 3 cultivars (‘Redhaven’, ‘Loring’, and ‘Sunhigh’) during the 3-year period. Reproducibility between years was not good. Unpruned trees or long 2-year-old limbs lost a greater portion of fruit at the base of shoots and on the interior of the trees than trees pruned to a uniform shoot length. The thinning response to CGA 17856 (an analogue of CGA 15281) was compared to the same rate of CGA 15281 on 5 cultivars. A tendency to greater leaf abscission was observed with CGA 17856.

Open Access

Shading (92%) of `Redchief Delicious' apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees for 10-day periods from 10 to 20, 15 to 25, 20 to 30, and 25 to 35 days after full bloom (DAFB) caused greater fruit abscission than shading from 5 to 15, 30 to 40, 35 to 45, or 47 to 57 DAFB. Fruit 8 to 33 mm in diameter (10 to 30 DAFB) were very sensitive to 10 days of shade, even though fruit sizes of 6 to 12 mm are considered the most sensitive to chemical thinners. In a second test, shading for 3 days caused fruit thinning; 5 days of shade in the periods 18 to 23, 23 to 28, and 28 to 33 DAFB caused greater thinning than 11 to 16 or 33 to 38 DAFB. Shading reduced photosynthesis (Pn) to about one-third that of noncovered trees. Terbacil (50 mg·liter-1) + X-77 surfactant (1250 mg·liter-1) applied with a hand-pump sprayer 5, 10, or 15 DAFB greatly reduced fruit set and caused some leaf yellowing, particularly in the earliest treatments. Terbacil reduced Pn by more than 90% at 72 hours after application. Shoot growth of trees defruited by shade or terbacil was equivalent to defruited or deblossomed trees; ethephon (1500 mg·liter-1) inhibited tree growth and defruited trees. No terbacil residues were dectected in fruit at harvest from applications made 5, 15, 20, 25, or 30 DAFB. Eleven of 12 photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides were also found to thin `Redchief Delicious' apple trees. Shading caused more thinning than terbacil at the later applications, which may reflect poorer absorption and/or lesser photosynthetic inhibition than when terbacil was applied to older leaves.

Free access

The thinning potential of various chemicals sprayed on `Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry was examined in the greenhouse in 1990 and under field conditions in 1991 and 1992. In the greenhouse, BA concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 mg·liter-1 and carbaryl concentrations ranging from 400 to 2100 mg·liter-1 reduced fruit set when treatments were applied 16 days after corolla drop (ACD). GA3 reduced fruit set only at 50 mg·liter-1 and NAA did not influence fruit set. In the field, BA at 75 mg·liter-1 and the combination of carbaryl at 400 mg·liter-1 and BA at 25 mg·liter-1 reduced fruit set in 1991 and 1992. Combinations of carbaryl and GA3 reduced fruit set, but the response depended on GA3 concentration and varied from year to year. GA3, NAA, and carbaryl also reduced fruit set, but the results were inconsistent. In 1991, greater thinning occurred when the treatments were sprayed 10 days ACD. BA at 25 mg·liter-1 increased fruit diameter at first harvest in 1991, and carbaryl at 400 mg·liter-1 increased fruit diameter in 1991 and 1992. Fruit diameter was increased in the presence and absence of thinning, depending on year and application time. Yield and return bloom were not influenced by any of the treatments. Chemical names used: 7 benzylamino purine (BA); gibberellic acid (GA3); 2-naphaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl).

Free access
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Abstract

A carbaryl spray thinned fruit of the apple (Malus svlvestris (L.) Mill.) cv. Red Rome but did not affect ethylene evolution of fruit or pedicel of ’Red Rome’, ‘Golden Delicious’ or ‘Staymared’. It did increase ethylene evolution of the leaves of the first 2 compared with ‘Staymared’ even though ‘Red Rome’ was the only cultivar thinned by the Sevin spray. Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) sprays which caused thinning also increased ethylene evolution of all 3 structures, commencing the second day after application. The increase was greater than that from dipping samples structures in the same solution. Covering branches with black shading cloth reduced ethylene evolution of mature to young apple leaves. Lack of good correlation between thinning, ethylene evolution of different structures, and methods of application make it desirable to develop a better method of screening potential apple thinning materials.

Open Access

Hand thinning fruit is required every season to ensure large fruit size of `Loadel' cling peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] in California. Chemical thinning may lower costs of hand thinning. A surfactant, Armothin {[N,N-bis 2-(omega-hydroxypolyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene) ethyl alkylamine]; AKZO-Nobel, Chicago; AR}, was sprayed at 80% of full bloom (FB), FB, and FB + 3 days. The spray volume was 935 liters/ha. Concentrations of AR were 1%, 3%, and 5% (v/v). An early hand thinning in late April, a normal hand thinning at 13 days before standard reference date (early May), and a nonthinned control were compared to bloom-thinned trees for set, yield, and fruit quality. AR resulted in no damage to fruit; however, slight leaf yellowing and burn and small shoot dieback were seen at the 5% concentration. Fruit set, and therefore, the number of fruit that had to be hand thinned, were reduced with 3% AR applied at 80% FB and 5% AR applied at all bloom phenophases (stages of bloom development). Thinning time was reduced by 37% (5% AR applied at 80% FB), 28% (5% applied at FB), and by 20% (3% applied at 80% of FB), compared to the normally hand-thinned control. Although AR resulted in early size (cross suture diameter and weight) advantages, at harvest there were no significant differences in fruit size among all AR treatments and the normally hand-thinned control. Total and salable yields of AR treatments and the normally hand-thinned control were equal. Armothin shows promise for chemical thinning of peach when used as a bloom thinner.

Free access

Studies were conducted on peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] during 1988 to 1990 to test the performance of a tree-width rope-curtain bloom thinner and a rotating rope-curtain thinner. Six trips over the tree canopy were required with the tree-width rope curtain, and only one trip was required with the rotating curtain to thin to a spacing of about one flower per 9 cm of fruiting shoot length. Based on the number of flowers per square centimeter of branch cross-sectional area (CSA) immediately following thinning and the number of fruit per square centimeter of CSA following June drop, rope-curtain thinning was equal to hand-thinning at full bloom (FB). Rope-curtain thinning reduced hand-thinning time by 40% and increased harvest fruit weight by 10% to 20%. Research on various modifications in tree training/pruning indicated that performance of the mechanical thinner was negatively correlated with shoot density. Thinning was maximum on open-center-trained trees on which detailed pruning had been conducted to eliminate overlapping shoots.

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Authors: and

Postbloom applications of benzyladenine (BA) thinned young fruitlets of mature `Empire' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) as well as or better than NAA or carbaryl (CB). BA increased fruit weight more effectively than either NAA or CB. Promalin (PR) was less effective than BA for both thinning and fruit-weight increase. In 1990, both BA and PR reduced fruit set up to 29 days after full bloom, but PR showed less thinning activity. BA and NAA produced independent and additive thinning responses when tank-mixed. Effects of all thinners on foliar mineral-nutrient concentrations were associated with changes in fruit load. BA increased return bloom as much or more than NAA or CB. PR did not affect return bloom. Chemical names used: N -(phenylmethyl)-1 H -purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; BA plus gibberellins A, and A, [Promalin (PR)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate [carbaryl (CB)].

Free access

Abstract

Successful fruit thinning of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) with CGA 15281, an ethylene-releasing compound, was demonstrated at 20 and 46 days past bloom. A rapid drop in fruit removal force was followed by fruit abscission on days 4 and 5. In contrast, ethephon often resulted in protracted abscission and complete fruit removal. Differential sensitivity to CGA 15281 existed among cultivars. Explants were less sensitive to ethylene than intact fruit, and could not be used for controlled experiments. No adverse effects of CGA 15281 were noted with the exception of some leaf drop in the interior of the tree.

Open Access

Abstract

Several peach varieties were sprayed with 3-chlorophenoxy-α-propionamide (3-CPA) at different stages of fruit development. The timing of the application was critical, and varieties differed greatly in their thinning response. The ‘Ranger’ variety was thinned with ease, but attempts to thin ‘Cardinal’ with 3-CPA were unsuccessful. Fruit thinning apparently increased the cold hardiness of the flowers during the following bloom period. Several spray additives were found to increase the thinning effectiveness of 3-CPA.

Open Access

Abstract

Trees of Malus domestica (Borkh.) ‘Miller Sturdeespur’ were hand thinned to achieve light, medium, and heavy fruit loads. A heavy European red mite (ERM), Panonychus ulmi (Koch), infestation was encouraged by mite seeding and predator elimination in half the trees for each fruit load. The effect of these treatments were determined on fruit number, number and percentage of drops, fruit size, color, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, firmness, and percentage of foliar concentration for 5 macronutrients. Mite feeding increased the percentage of drop and reduced red pigmentation, soluble solids, and leaf phosphorus and calcium. Deleterious effects of mite feeding increased with increasing fruit load. With light fruit loads, heavy mite feeding had a negligible effect on fruit quality.

Open Access