Ornamental peach [Prunuspersica (L.) Batsch.] is a well-known ornamental plant for the garden. However, the genetic relationship among ornamental peach cultivars is not clear, which limits further studies of its molecular systematics and breeding. A group of 16 taxa of ornamental peach, originated from Prunuspersica and Prunusdavidiana (Carr.) Franch., had been studied using AFLPs and ISSRs. A total of 243 useful markers between 75 to 500 base pairs were generated from six EcoRI/MseI AFLP primer combinations (ACC/CAT, AGG/CAT, ACT/CAT, ACC/CTC, AGG/CTC, and ACT/CTC). The average readable bands were 41 per primer combination. Among them, 84% of the bands were polymorphic markers. A total of 132 useful markers between 300 to 1400 base pairs were generated from 10 ISSR primers (UBC818, UBC825, UBC834, UBC855, UBC817, UBC868, UBC845, UBC899, UBC860, and UBC836). The mean reliable bands were 14 per primer. Among them, 62% of the bands were polymorphic markers. Both methods generated very similar phenograms with consistent clades. From these results we concluded that AFLP and ISSR analysis had a great potential to identify ornamental peach cultivars and estimate their phylogeny. The application of these molecular techniques may elucidate the hierarchy of ornamental peach taxa.
Dongyan Hu, Donglin Zhang, Zuoshuang Zhang, Qixiang Zhang, and Jianhua Li
James A. Schrader and William R. Graves
Alnus maritima (Marsh.) Muhl. ex Nutt. is a rare woody plant species that exists as three subspecies found in widely disjunct locations in the United States. Although there is a growing interest in the phytogeography, ecology, conservation, and landscape potential of this species, the phylogeny of A. maritima has not yet been resolved by using molecular methods. We have combined a relatively new method of genome fingerprinting, ISSR-PCR, and the automated imaging capabilities of GeneScan technology to investigate the molecular systematics of A. maritima. Based on the molecular evidence from 108 ISSR loci, we confirm that the three disjunct populations of A. maritima have diverged sufficiently to be classified as subspecies. Our molecular phylogeny of the three subspecies of A. maritima agreed in topology with a phylogeny produced from morphological data and showed that subsp. oklahomensis is the most distinct of the three subspecies and was the first to diverge. The simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data provides a detailed and balanced phylogeny reconstruction for the three subspecies. Our results support the theory that A. maritima originated in Asia, migrated into North America across the Bering land bridge, and was established over a large range in the New World before being forced into its present meager disjunct distribution.
David J. Roberts and Dennis J. Werner
of genome size as it relates to legume systematics and taxonomy. Most aspects of legume biology, from ploidy number to floral diversity, can be further examined through the evolutionary relationships that exist among leguminous taxa ( Young et al
Li-Qiang Tan, Xin-Yu Wang, Hui Li, Guan-Qun Liu, Yao Zou, Shen-Xiang Chen, Ping-Wu Li, and Qian Tang
worse for BCTZ as many old landrace tea plantations were destroyed in the devastating Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008 and more were abandoned because many tea farmers moved out after that disaster. Therefore, there is an urgent need to systematically
Todd J. Rounsaville and Thomas G. Ranney
Caryologia 59 305 311 Zonneveld, B.J.M. 2009 The systematic value of nuclear genome size for ‘all’ species of Tulipa L. ( Liliaceae ) Plant Syst. Evol. 281 217 245 Zonneveld, B.J.M. Duncan, G
The forma now known as Trillium ovatum L. forma hibbersonii Taylor & Szczawinski (Liliaceae) was first discovered on the west coast of Vancouver Island, B.C., in 1938 by Jack Arthur Hibberson (Holotype UBC 73131). The obvious morphological differences that characterize the forma hibbersonii from T. ovatum are the dwarfing of all its parts, pink not white flower color at anthesis, and narrow lanceolate leaves. Although it has gained popularity as a garden plant, it has received very little attention in the scientific community. A description and designation as a distinct species (T. hibbersonii) was published by L. Wiley in 1968 but was considered invalid. The 1975 valid publication by T.M.C. Taylor and A.F. Szczawinski designated this taxon at the intraspecific level of forma. The present study was initiated to provide a comprehensive reevaluation of the taxonomic status: forma, separate species, subspecies, or variety? A change in taxonomic status from forma to species would elevate the taxon from rare to endangered status. This study considers morphological differences and flavonoid analysis of samples from both natural populations and cultivated plants. Habitat, dormancy requirements, and breeding strategy also were considered. Initial investigation using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) indicates this method is another valuable tool for distinguishing between the taxa.
Deqiu Fang, Robert R. Krueger, and Mikeal L. Roose
ISSR markers were analyzed to study phylogenetic relationships among 46 Citrus L. accessions representing 35 species. A dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method, arithmetic average cluster analysis was constructed using a similarity matrix derived from 642 polymorphic ISSR fragments generated by 10 primers. These 46 accessions could be classified into five major groups: 1) C. indica Tan.; 2) C. maxima (Burm.) Merrill; 3) lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.] or lime [C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle] type accessions; 4) C. halimii B. C. Stone; and 5) sour orange (C. aurantium L.), mandarins and their hybrids. Group 5 was further divided into three subgroups. Although some previous work had grouped it with mandarins, C. indica appeared to be a distinct genotype or species that was not close to mandarins. C. tachibana Tan. grouped closely to mandarins. C. vulgaris Risso was not related to sour orange but was similar to accessions usually classified in the lime or lemon group. Sour orange and its hybrids, C. nippokoreana Tan., C. hanayu Hort. ex Shirai, C. sudachi Hort. ex Shirai, and C. yuko Hort. ex Tan. had close phylogenetic relationships with mandarins. Although the mandarin accessions studied were divergent in morphology, the genetic distances among them were relatively small. Relationships among these Citrus accessions revealed by ISSR markers were generally in agreement with previous taxonomic classifications.
Jianhua Li, Michael S. Dosmann, Peter Del Tredici, and Susyn Andrews
Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to examine genetic divergence of the two species of katsura [Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. & Zucc. and Cercidiphyllum magnificum (Nakai) Nakai] and four clones of weeping katsura (`Amazing Grace', `Tidal Wave', `Pendulum', and `Morioka Weeping'), and to characterize the affinity of these weeping katsura to both species. Our results indicate that C. japonicum and C. magnificum are genetically distinct, supporting the recognition of them as separate species. Based on our DNA sequence data and morphological evidence, all weeping selections are phylogenetically derived from C. japonicum, not C. magnificum; nor are they of a hybrid origin between C. japonicum and C. magnificum. We propose the new cultivar-group Cercidiphyllum japonicum Weeping Group to include all katsura clones of weeping or pendulous habit, and recognize the cultivar epithet `Morioka Weeping' and its application to the excurrent and upright clone obtained from Japan and distributed in North America by the Arnold Arboretum.
Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Theodore M. DeJong, Yann Guédon, and Evelyne Costes
Different almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars have been characterized by their contrasting shoot branching patterns; however, the differences between patterns have been difficult to quantify. This study aimed to model the branching patterns of 2-year-old proleptic shoots on three almond cultivars (Nonpareil, Aldrich, and Winters) representing different tree architectures. The effects of branching pattern on flowering were also studied. The branching patterns of shoots of different length categories were assessed by a single hidden semi-Markov model for each cultivar. The models identified zones of homogeneous branching composition along shoots and were used to extract the occurrence and number of nodes of the zones according to shoot length categories. The numbers of flower buds were also determined for each shoot length category in each cultivar. The models of branching patterns of ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Aldrich’ were similar and differed from the ‘Winters’ model. ‘Winters’ shoots produced more zones, but some of the zones had similar characteristics as previous zones and thus appeared to be repeated. This cultivar also had more spurs and sylleptic shoots than the other cultivars. The occurrence and node number of the central zones decreased along with reduction in shoot length in all the cultivars. ‘Aldrich’ tended to have more flower buds than comparable-length shoots of the other two cultivars. This study provides a quantitative description of the shoot branching patterns of three important cultivars and explains how branching changes in relation to shoot length, whereas production of flower buds varies despite similar branching patterns.
Ernesto A. Brovelli, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Wayne B. Sherman, and Jay M. Harrison
Potential maturity indices were determined for two melting-flesh (FL 90-20 and Tropic Beauty) and two nonmelting-flesh (Oro A and Fl 86-28 C) peach cultivars. A range of developmental stages was obtained by conducting two harvests and separating fruit based on their diameter. Fruit in each category were divided into two groups. One group was used for determining potential maturity indices: soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble solids: titratable acidity, peel and flesh color on the cheeks (CH) and blossom end (BE), CH and BE texture, ethylene production, and respiration rate. The other group was stored at 0°C for 1 week and ripened at 20°C for 2 days to simulate actual handling conditions, and were presented to a trained sensory panel, which rated the fruit for three textural (hardness, rubberiness, and juiciness) and three flavor aspects (sweetness; sourness; bitterness; and green, peachy, and overripe character). Principal component (PC) analysis was used to consolidate the results of the descriptive sensory evaluation into a single variable that could be correlated with the objective measurements at harvest. The first overall PC explained 40% of the total variation. Following are the attributes that best correlated with PC 1 and, thus, are promising maturity indices: for FL 90-20, peel hue, peel L, and CH texture; for Tropic Beauty, peel L, CH texture, and BE texture; for Oro A, CH texture, BE texture, and CH chroma; for 86-28C, BE texture, CH hue, and CH texture.