Botrytis cinerea and rachis browning as a result of desiccation are the two main factors that reduce table grape postharvest quality ( Nelson, 1985 ). The means for preventing decay during storage is the use of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), which was first tried
market availability of Vidalia onions from May to September ( Boyhan et al., 2008 ). Sumner (2000) reported good quality Vidalia onions after 7 months of storage under controlled-atmosphere storage. Sulfur dioxide is not used in onion storage in Georgia
Reduced doses of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were evaluated for the fumigation of marine containers with respect to the concentration × time (CT) product and gas penetration. Two commercial export containers were loaded at 32 °F (0 °C) with 20 metric pallets [40 × 48 inches (102.5 × 123.1 cm)] comprised of 72 expanded polystyrene foam boxes (12 tiers, 6 boxes/tier) of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) and fumigated with 1.0 and 0.5 lb (0.454 and 0.227 kg) SO2, respectively. A third marine container was loaded with 20 metric pallets comprised of 84 plastic boxes of table grapes (14 tiers, 6 boxes/tier) and fumigated with 0.25 lb (0.113 kg) SO2. The boxes contained 16 lb (7.3 kg) of table grapes distributed in nine polyethylene cluster bagsenclosed in a perforated polyethylene box liner. Fumigations were performed through the bottom seal of the rear door from pre-weighed compressed SO2 cylinders. CT product was calculated after taking samples of the atmosphere in the container every 5 to 10 min and measuring the ambient SO2 concentration with a gas sampling pump and colorimetric dosimeter tubes. Pallet and box penetration of the gas was assessed by placing passive colorimetric SO2 dosimeters inside the cluster bags in boxes located in both the third and ninth center boxes from the top of pallets located in the front, center, and rear of the load. Fumigations with 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 lb SO2, with calculated CT products at 32 °F of 925, 360, and 40 ppm-h (μL·L-1·h-1) respectively, were found to provide excessive, adequate, and insufficient SO2 doses.
Methyl bromide (MB) penetration rates, sorption levels, and concentration.time (CT) products were compared in returnable plastic containers (RPCs) and corrugated grape boxes (CGBs). During a 2.5-hour fumigation, sorption of methyl bromide in RPCs and CGBs was 9.8% and 18.1%, respectively. The lower sorption in RPCs increased the exposure of grapes (Vitis vinifera) to MB. Equilibrium concentrations of MB (concentrations that had stabilized) in RPCs and CGBs were 68.2 and 59.2 g·m-3 (4.26 and 3.70 lb/1000 ft3) respectively. The CT products in RPCs and CGBs were 170.5 and 147.6 g·h-1·m-3 (10.66 and 9.19 lb/h/1000 ft3), respectively, and far below phytotoxic concentrations according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture schedule.
Grape (Vitis vinifera) storage requires stringent control of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. The commercial practice is dependent on sulfur dioxide (SO2) as a fumigant, which is applied by various means with well-known advantages and disadvantages. Many alternative technologies were developed over the years, most of them with limited efficacy or applicability. Modified atmosphere of table grapes suffers from a narrow threshold between control of gray mold and damage to the berries and stems due to high level of carbon dioxide (CO2) within the film-enclosed package. We demonstrated in the past that dipping table grapes in ethanol after harvest has a very pronounced effect on prevention of decay. However, ethanol does not leave a protective residue within the grapes, so it is not expected to prevent latent infections from developing decay nests during prolonged storage. However, if grapes of cultivar Superior were treated with ethanol and then subjected to a modified atmosphere using plastic films (Xtend), we achieved an additive effect and observed persistent control of gray mold without injury to the grapes. The advantage of this plastic film was mainly in its water conductance, which prevented accumulation of free water that is often the limiting factor in modified atmosphere packaging. This combination results in greater decay control, which is a prerequisite for commercial applicability. If undesired aftertaste did develop within the fruit due to the modified atmosphere, 1 day of exposure to ambient air was sufficient to dissipate it.
dioxide is commonly added to the juice before and after fermentation. Increased concentrations of molecular sulfur dioxide have been demonstrated to contribute to pathogen inactivation in wine and in sweet (unfermented) cider in some cases ( Basaran
.5%. Less energy use, more cost-effective fuel, and increased yields reduced heating cost per production unit by 43%. Grape Storage in Boxes with Internal Plastic Liners versus External Wraps Table grapes packed with sulfur dioxide-releasing pads for
control gray mold of table grapes Grape storage requires stringent control of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea . Commercial practice is dependent on sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), a fumigant that is applied by various means with well-known advantages and
$14 billion in 2004. Numerous time-series studies of hospital admissions and emergency visits have suggested a connection between particulate air pollution and asthma attacks ( Dockery and Pope, 1996 ). Pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, acid
fermentations in each year). Fruit was destemmed, crushed, and treated with 50 mg·L −1 sulfur dioxide added as potassium metabisulfite. Diammonium phosphate [DAP (Presque Isle Wine Cellars, PA)] was added at a rate of 1 g·kg −1 , Fermaid K (Lallemand, Rexdale