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Based on a new structure for plastic culture channels, a new system for soilless culture called New Growing Systems (NGS) has been developed. It is similar to the nutrient film technique (NFT) but with several potential advantages. Each NGS growing channel has five plastic layers and a large number of holes, there is a dripper every 0.5 m above the first layer of plastic, and each dripper supplies the nutrient solution which flows from the second layer over the others to the end. Three separate greenhouse experiments with tomato, cucumber, and sweet pepper using NGS channels were conducted in Almería (southeastern Spain). The oxygen content in the circulating nutrient solutions was determined at different points and different times along the channels of all crops. Depletion of oxygen content in the nutrient solution was lower than NFT channels. Oxygen content in NGS showed some advantages compared to NFT.

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of saffron crop and point of sample temperature under soilless culture. Fertigation management was carried out according to the methodology proposed by Urrestarazu et al. (2015 ). The application of new fertigation was effected when the water in

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, nutrient concentrations are sometimes higher than necessary for optimum plant growth and yield, and there is limited information about the effects of increased EC nutrient solution management in soilless culture. Hence, this work aims to assess the effects

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Aeroponics, as a method of soilless culture, has been in intermittent use since the 1950's. Early Russian and Italian research suggested that productivity and use of space was optimized with this technique. Prior to the introduction of ultrasonic techniques, aeroponics utilized spray nozzles or spinning disks. In addition to the need for frequent cleaning, the first results in the formation of a boundary layer on the root surface, similar to that formed in hydroponics, which results in nutrient and aeration gradients. The second results in significant physical disturbance to the root system and, except under very controlled conditions, also develops a boundary layer. Ultrasonic fogs avoid these side effects and allow the use of carbon dioxide enrichment of the root zone as well as reduced nutrient concentrations. Initial results with commercially available equipment are very promising. Commercial implementations of ultrasonic aeroponics promise to be far less energy and manpower intensive than any other method of plant culture. Lettuce, corn, tomato, soybean, dry bean, and geraniums have all been cultured with this method.

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, D. 2012 Algunos usos de la visión artificial y su aplicación en la horticultura protegida Vida Rural 343 46 48 Fernández-Bregón, N. Valera, D. Urrestarazu, M. 2013 Uniformity of fertigation as diagnosed by infrared thermography under soilless culture

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., 2015 ; Polat et al., 2004 ; Silber and Raviv, 1996 ). Accordingly, using 0 to 4-mm substrate holds promise for improving growth and flower quality of asiatic hybrid lily grown under soilless culture. Units Literature cited Adams, P. 2002 Nutritional

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The financial effectiveness of the soilless culture system (SCS) of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bol. ex Adlam.) production was compared with that of the soil culture system in heated greenhouses in northern Greece. Evaluation was based on budgeting procedures that assumed a project life of 9 years. The decision to accept or to reject the investment was based on the following criteria: 1) net present value analysis (U.S. $18,414), 2) benefit/cost ratio, and 3) risk exposure ratio. The soilless culture system, particularly the plastic bag system using perlite media, was more profitable. Application of sensitivity analysis illustrated the significance of product price and discount rate in determining the accrued benefits.

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systems ( Hikosaka et al. 2021 ; Kitayama et al. 2019 ), a comparison of liquid or substrate-based soilless culture has not been reported. To understand the effect of substrate water status on intumescence, Rud (2009) found that tomato plants grown in

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al., 2004 ; Romero et al., 2004 ; Van Hooijdonk et al., 2004 ). However, there has been little attention paid to application timing of nutrient solution for sweet pepper in soilless culture. Russo (2011) conducted research on irrigation timing in

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The financial effectiveness of a soilless vertical bag system of hydroponics culture was evaluated for off-season strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch) production in heated greenhouses in northern Greece. Financial analysis revealed that the implementation of this soilless culture system instead of the traditional production system under plastic tunnels would not be profitable for Greek farmers due to its high initial investment and high fuel consumption. Sensitivity analysis indicated the importance of product price in affecting the magnitude of benefits, confirming the interest of farmers to produce off-season strawberries to market them when prices are likely to be higher. In addition, yield increase will have a positive effect upon farmers' income.

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