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Maude Lachapelle, Gaétan Bourgeois, Jennifer R. DeEll, Katrine A. Stewart, and Philippe Séguin

Soggy breakdown is a chilling-related disorder, which in worse cases forms a soft, brown, spongy tissue in the outer apple cortex. It is known to affect the quality of ‘Honeycrisp’ apples, a new variety that is gaining popularity because of its high

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Renae E. Moran, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Dennis P. Murr

‘Honeycrisp’ apples develop the disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown in cold storage, particularly at temperatures below 3 °C ( Watkins et al., 2003 ). Soft scald is a low-temperature disorder that is characterized by sharply defined

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Renae E. Moran

In 2004, prestorage delays and CA storage were compared for occurrence of disorders. Fruit were harvested at a starch index of 5.9. Fruit were exposed to either a 2- or 5-day prestorage delay at 17 °C; or placed immediately into cold storage (control) at 0.5 °C. An additional treatment was CA storage at 2.5 °C. In February, occurrence of soft scald, soggy breakdown, and bitter pit were measured on 40 fruit per replication. Fruit were from `Honeycrisp'/M.26 trees planted in 1994. Treatments were replicated five times with four trees in each replication. Soft scald was very severe in this year, with 84% of control fruit being affected. Two-day prestorage delay reduced it to 48% and 5-day delay to 21%. Soggy breakdown was also severe with 14% of the fruit being affected. Two- and 5-day delays had no effect on occurrence of soggy breakdown, but CA storage increased it to 65%. Bitter pit was very rare and not affected by any of the treatments. These results demonstrate that in severe cases, shorter prestorage delay is not effective in preventing soft scald or soggy breakdown.

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Rachel S. Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

CI of ‘Honeycrisp’ apple fruit is often manifested as either soft scald, which is characterized by sunken, ribbon-like brown regions of the peel ( Barker, 1938 ; Snowdon, 1990 ), or soggy breakdown, a cortex disorder characterized by similarly

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Yosef Al Shoffe and Christopher B. Watkins

challenging for storage operators. At low temperatures around 33 °F, the cultivar can develop symptoms of chilling injury (CI) such as soft scald and soggy breakdown, whereas at a higher temperature of 38 °F the fruit can be susceptible to bitter pit

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Jennifer R. DeEll and Behrouz Ehsani-Moghaddam

flavor characteristics and can remain crisp for at least 6 months in cold storage ( Tong et al., 1999 ). Unfortunately, ‘Honeycrisp’ is also extremely susceptible to the storage disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown ( Tong et al., 2003 ; Watkins et al

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Christopher B. Watkins, Mustafa Erkan, Jacqueline F. Nock, Kevin A. Iungerman, Randolph M. Beaudry, and Renae E. Moran

`Honeycrisp' is a new apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivar that has been planted extensively in North America, but the storage disorders soggy breakdown and soft scald have resulted in major fruit losses. The effects of harvest date and storage temperature on fruit quality and susceptibility of fruit to these disorders have been investigated in Michigan, New York, and Maine. Internal ethylene concentrations were variable over a wide range of harvest dates, and a rapid increase in autocatalytic ethylene production was not always apparent. The starch pattern index, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness also appear to have limited use as harvest indices. Development of soggy breakdown and soft scald is associated with later harvest dates and storage of fruit at temperatures of 0 to 0.5 °C compared with higher storage temperatures. It is recommended that `Honeycrisp' be stored at 3 °C, although storage disorders still can occur at this temperature if fruit are harvested late. In addition, greasiness development may be worse at higher storage temperatures.

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Carolina Contreras, Nihad Alsmairat, and Randy Beaudry

). The low-temperature disorders [i.e., chilling injuries (CIs)] described for ‘Honeycrisp’ have been diagnosed as soggy breakdown and soft scald (also known as ribbon scald or deep scald) as described by Plagge (1925 , 1929 ) and Ramsey et al. (1917

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Renae Moran, Jennifer DeEll, and Cindy B.S. Tong

storage, incidences of soft scald, soggy breakdown, bitter pit, lenticel blotch, lenticel breakdown, senescent breakdown, diffuse flesh browning, and core browning were counted. Statistical analyses. The main effects of harvest date and location and their

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James P. Mattheis, David R. Rudell, and Ines Hanrahan

sensitive with both peel (soft scald) and cortex (soggy breakdown) tissues at risk of injury development during cold storage ( Watkins et al., 2004 ). Chilling sensitivity is influenced by orchard environment before harvest ( Lachapelle et al., 2013 ; Moran